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Pre-curriculum/National curriculum  

More information

The England and Wales National Curriculum, pre-key stage standards and Engagement model.

Engagement

Activities and strategies for Engagement

Exploration

This shows whether a pupil can build on their initial reaction to a new stimulus or activity; for example, whether they display more than an involuntary or startled reaction to the activity. Additionally, the pupil may be interested in and curious about the stimulus or activity; for example, they may notice it or reach out to it.

Exploration becomes more established when the pupil is still responsive to the same stimulus or activity when it is presented in different contexts or environments; for example, a different time of day, a different place or with different people.

Exploration is important in identifying which stimuli or activities interest the pupil and motivate them to pay attention and investigate them further, so that they can develop new knowledge and skills.

Activities and strategies for Exploration

Realisation

This shows how the pupil interacts with a new stimulus or activity or discovers a new aspect of a familiar stimulus or activity. They will display behaviours that show they want more control of the stimulus or activity, for example by stopping it or trying to make changes to it. The pupil will often show what familiar adults consider to be ‘surprise’, ‘excitement’, ‘delight’, ‘amazement’ or ‘fear’.

Realisation becomes more established when the pupil uses the newly developed skills or knowledge in new ways and in different contexts or environments. This is important as it can keep the pupil excited in their education and prevents an activity from becoming routine.

Activities and strategies for Realisation

Anticipation

This shows how much the pupil predicts, expects or associates a stimulus or activity with an event. They may anticipate that a familiar activity is about to start or finish by interpreting cues or prompts such as auditory (what they hear), tactile (what they feel) and visual (what they see).

Anticipation becomes more established when the pupil shows awareness that a familiar activity is about to start or finish, even when cues and prompts are reduced.

Anticipation is important in measuring the pupil’s understanding of cause and effect; for example if they do this, then something will happen. This prepares the brain and helps with the pupil’s memory and sequencing.

Activities and strategies for Anticipation

Persistence

This shows whether the pupil can sustain their attention in a stimulus or activity for long enough that they can actively try to find out more and interact with it.

Persistence becomes more established when the pupil shows a determined effort to interact with the stimulus or activity. They will do this by showing intentional changes such as changes in their gaze, posture and hand movement.

Persistence is important so that the pupil maintains an activity long enough to develop, reinforce, and apply their skills or knowledge so they can achieve their desired outcome.

Activities and strategies for Persistence

Standard 1-6

Activities and strategies for Standard 1-6

Standard 1

Activities and strategies for Standard 1

Spoken language/English

There is no description for spoken language in the English national curriculum (December 2014) for this standard.

Activities and strategies for Spoken language/English

Language comprehension

In a familiar story/rhyme, the pupil can, when being read to by an adult (one-to-one or in a small group):

  • indicate correctly pictures of characters and objects in response to questionssuch as ‘Where is (the)...?’
  • show anticipation about what is going to happen (e.g. by turning the page)
  • join in with some actions or repeat some words, rhymes and phrases when prompted.

Activities and strategies for Language comprehension

Reading

There is no description for reading at standard 1.

Activities and strategies for Reading

Writing

Composition

The pupil can:

  • say an appropriate word to complete a sentence when the adult pauses(e.g. ‘We’re going to the...zoo/park/shop/beach’). TranscriptionThe pupil can:
  • draw lines or shapes on a small or a large scale (e.g. on paper or in the air or sand).

Activities and strategies for Writing

Maths

The pupil can:

  • demonstrate an understanding of the concept of transaction (e.g. by exchanging a coin for an item, or one item for another, during a role-play activity)
  • distinguish between ‘one’ and ‘lots’, when shown an example of a single object and a group of objects
  • demonstrate an understanding of the concept of 1:1 correspondence (e.g. giving one cup to each pupil).

Activities and strategies for Maths

Standard 2

Activities and strategies for Standard 2

Spoken language/English

There is no description for spoken language in the English national curriculum (December 2014) for this standard.

Activities and strategies for Spoken language/English

Language comprehension

In a familiar story/rhyme, the pupil can, when being read to by an adult (one-to-one or in a small group):

  • demonstrate understanding, e.g. by answering questions, such as ‘Where is he/she/it?’, ‘What is this?’, ‘Who is this?’, ‘What is he/she doing?’
  • join in with predictable phrases or refrains.

Activities and strategies for Language comprehension

Reading

The pupil can:

  • say a single sound for 10+ graphemes
  • read words by blending sounds with known graphemes, with help from their teacher.

Activities and strategies for Reading

Writing

Composition

The pupil can:

  • say a clause to complete a sentence that is said aloud (e.g. ‘When we went to the beach today, ... we ate ice cream / I played in the sand / it was hot’).

Transcription

The pupil can:

  • form correctly most of the 10+ lower-case letters in Standard 2 of English language comprehension and reading
  • identify or write these 10+ graphemes on hearing corresponding phonemes.

Activities and strategies for Writing

Maths

The pupil can:

  • identify the big or small object from a selection of two
  • sort objects according to a stated characteristic (e.g. group all the small ballstogether, sort the shapes into triangles and circles)
  • say the number names to 5 in the correct order (e.g. in a song or by joining in withthe teacher)
  • demonstrate an understanding of the concept of numbers up to 5 by putting together the right number of objects when asked
  • copy and continue simple patterns using real-life materials (e.g. apple, orange, apple, orange, etc.).

Activities and strategies for Maths

Standard 3

Activities and strategies for Standard 3

Spoken language/English

There is no description for spoken language in the English national curriculum (December 2014) for this standard.

Activities and strategies for Spoken language/English

Language comprehension

In a familiar story/rhyme, the pupil can, when being read to by an adult (one-to-one or in a small group):

  • respond to questions that require simple recall
  • recount a short sequence of events (e.g. by sequencing images or manipulating objects).

Activities and strategies for Language comprehension

Reading

The pupil can:

  • say a single sound for 20+ graphemes
  • read accurately by blending the sounds in words with two and three known graphemes.

Activities and strategies for Reading

Writing

Composition

The pupil can:

  • make up their own phrases or short sentences to express their thoughts aloud about stories or their experiences
  • write a caption or short phrase using the graphemes that they already know. Transcription The pupil can:
  • form correctly most of the 20+ lower-case letters in Standard 3 of English language comprehension and reading
  • identify or write these 20+ graphemes on hearing the corresponding phonemes
  • spell words (with known graphemes) by identifying the phonemes and representing the phonemes with graphemes (e.g. in, cat, pot).

Activities and strategies for Writing

Maths

The pupil can:

  • identify how many objects there are in a group of up to 10 objects, recognising smaller groups on sight and counting the objects in larger groups up to 10.
  • demonstrate an understanding that the last number counted represents the totalnumber of the count
  • use real-life materials (e.g. apples or crayons) to add and subtract 1 from a group of objects and indicate how many are now present
  • copy and continue more advanced patterns using real-life materials (e.g. apple, apple, orange, apple, apple, orange, etc.).

Activities and strategies for Maths

Standard 4

Activities and strategies for Standard 4

Spoken language/English

There is no description for spoken language in the English national curriculum (December 2014) for this standard.

Activities and strategies for Spoken language/English

Language comprehension

In a familiar story/rhyme, the pupil can, when being read to by an adult (one-to-one or in a small group):

  • talk about events in the story and link them to their own experiences
  • retell some of the story.

Activities and strategies for Language comprehension

Reading

The pupil can:

  • say sounds for 40+ graphemes, including one grapheme for each of the 40+ phonemes
  • read accurately by blending the sounds in words with up to five known graphemes
  • read some common exception words
  • read aloud books that are consistent with their phonic knowledge, without guessing words from pictures or the context of the sentence.

Activities and strategies for Reading

Writing

Composition

The pupil can:

  • make up their own sentences and say them aloud, after discussion with the teacher
  • write down one of the sentences that they have rehearsed.

Transcription

The pupil can:

  • form most lower-case letters correctly
  • identify or write the 40+ graphemes in Standard 4 of English language comprehension and reading on hearing the corresponding phonemes
  • spell words by identifying the phonemes and representing the phonemes with graphemes, including words with consonant clusters and simple digraphs (e.g. frog, hand, see, chop, storm, splash)
  • spell a few common exception words (e.g. I, the, he, said, of).

Activities and strategies for Writing

Maths

The pupil can:

  • read and write numbers in numerals from 0 to 9
  • demonstrate an understanding of the mathematical symbols of add, subtract and equal to
  • solve number problems involving the addition and subtraction of single-digit numbers up to 10
  • demonstrate an understanding of the composition of numbers to 5 and a developing ability to recall number bonds to and within 5 (e.g. 2 + 2 = 4 and 3 + 1 = 4)
  • demonstrate an understanding of the commutative law (e.g. 3 + 2 = 5, therefore 2 + 3 = 5 )
  • demonstrate an understanding of inverse relationships involving addition and subtraction (e.g. if 3 + 2 = 5, then 5 – 2 = 3)
  • demonstrate an understanding that the total number of objects changes when objects are added or taken away
  • demonstrate an understanding that the number of objects remains the samewhen they are rearranged, providing nothing has been added or taken away
  • count to 20, demonstrating that the next number in the count is one more and the previous number is one less•recognise some common 2-D shapes.

Activities and strategies for Maths

Standard 5

Activities and strategies for Standard 5

Spoken language/English

There is no description for spoken language in the English national curriculum (December 2014) for this standard.

Activities and strategies for Spoken language/English

Language comprehension

In a familiar book that is read to them, the pupil can:

  • answer questions in discussion with the teacher and make simple inferences.

Activities and strategies for Language comprehension

Reading

The pupil can:

  • read accurately by blending the sounds in words that contain the commongraphemes for all 40+ phonemes
  • read accurately some words of two or more syllables that contain the samegrapheme-phoneme correspondences (GPCs)
  • read many common exception words.

In a book closely matched to the GPCs as above, the pupil can:

  • read aloud many words quickly and accurately without overt sounding and blending
  • sound out many unfamiliar words accurately.

Activities and strategies for Reading

Writing

Composition

The pupil can, after discussion with the teacher:

  • write sentences that are sequenced to form a short narrative (real or fictional)
  • demarcate some sentences with capital letters and full stops.

Transcription

The pupil can:

  • segment spoken words into phonemes and represent these by graphemes, spelling some words correctly and making phonically -plausible attempts at others
  • spell some common exception words
  • form lower-case letters in the correct direction, starting and finishing in the right place
  • form lower-case letters of the correct size relative to one another in some of their writing
  • use spacing between words.

Activities and strategies for Writing

Maths

The pupil can:

  • read and write numbers in numerals up to 100
  • partition a two-digit number into tens and ones to demonstrate an understanding of place value, though they may use structured resources1 to support them
  • add and subtract two-digit numbers and ones, and two-digit numbers and tens, where no regrouping is required, explaining their method verbally, in pictures or using apparatus (e.g. 23 + 5; 46 + 20; 16 – 5; 88 – 30)
  • recall at least four of the six2 number bonds for 10 and reason about associated facts (e.g. 6 + 4 = 10, therefore 4 + 6 = 10 and 10 – 6 = 4)
  • count in twos, fives and tens from 0 and use this to solve problems• know the value of different coins
  • name some common 2-D and 3-D shapes from a group of shapes or from picturesof the shapes and describe some of their properties (e.g. triangles, rectangles, squares, circles, cuboids, cubes, pyramids and spheres).

Activities and strategies for Maths

Standard 6

Activities and strategies for Standard 6

Spoken language/English

There is no description for spoken language in the English national curriculum (December 2014) for this standard.

Activities and strategies for Spoken language/English

Language comprehension

In a book that they can already read fluently, the pupil can:

  • check it makes sense to them, correcting any inaccurate reading
  • answer questions and make some inferences
  • explain what has happened so far in what they have read.

Activities and strategies for Language comprehension

Reading

The pupil can:

  • read accurately most words of two or more syllables
  • read most words containing common suffixes
  • read most common exception words.

In age-appropriate books, the pupil can:

  • read most words accurately without overt sounding and blending, and sufficiently fluently to allow them to focus on their understanding rather than on decoding individual words
  • sound out most unfamiliar words accurately, without undue hesitation.

Activities and strategies for Reading

Writing

Composition

The pupil can, after discussion with the teacher:

  • write simple, coherent narratives about personal experiences and those of others(real or fictional)
  • write about real events, recording these simply and clearly
  • demarcate most sentences in their writing with capital letters and full stops, and usequestion marks correctly when required
  • use present and past tense mostly correctly and consistently
  • use co-ordination (e.g. or / and / but) and some subordination (e.g. when / if / that / because) to join clauses. Transcription The pupil can:
  • segment spoken words into phonemes and represent these by graphemes, spelling many of these words correctly and making phonically plausible attempts at others
  • spell many common exception words
  • form capital letters and digits of the correct size, orientation and relationship to one another and to lower-case letters
  • use spacing between words that reflects the size of the letters.

Activities and strategies for Writing

Maths

The pupil can:

  • read scales3 in divisions of ones, twos, fives and tens
  • partition any two-digit number into different combinations of tens and ones, explaining their thinking verbally, in pictures or using apparatus
  • add and subtract any 2 two-digit numbers using an efficient strategy, explaining their method verbally, in pictures or using apparatus (e.g. 48 + 35; 72 – 17)
  • recall all number bonds to and within 10 and use these to reason with and calculate bonds to and within 20, recognising other associated additive relationships(e.g. If 7 + 3 = 10, then 17 + 3 = 20; if 7 – 3 = 4, then 17 – 3 = 14; leading to if 14 + 3 = 17, then 3 + 14 = 17, 17 – 14 = 3 and 17 – 3 = 14)
  • recall multiplication and division facts for 2, 5 and 10 and use them to solve simple problems, demonstrating an understanding of commutativity as necessary
  • identify 14, 13, 12, 24, 34, of a number or shape, and know that all parts must be equal parts of the whole
  • use different coins to make the same amount
  • read the time on a clock to the nearest 15 minutes
  • name and describe properties of 2-D and 3-D shapes, including number of sides, vertices, edges, faces and lines of symmetry.

Activities and strategies for Maths

Key stage 1-2

Activities and strategies for Key stage 1-2

Spoken language/English

Pupils should be taught to:

  • listen and respond appropriately to adults and their peers
  • ask relevant questions to extend their understanding and knowledge
  • use relevant strategies to build their vocabulary
  • articulate and justify answers, arguments and opinions
  • give well-structured descriptions, explanations and narratives for different purposes, including for expressing feelings
  • maintain attention and participate actively in collaborative conversations, staying on topic and initiating and responding to comments
  • use spoken language to develop understanding through speculating, hypothesising, imagining and exploring ideas
  • speak audibly and fluently with an increasing command of Standard English
  • participate in discussions, presentations, performances, role play/improvisations and debates
  • gain, maintain and monitor the interest of the listener(s)
  • consider and evaluate different viewpoints, attending to and building on the contributions of others
  • select and use appropriate registers for effective communication

Activities and strategies for Spoken language/English

Key stage 1

Activities and strategies for Key stage 1

Key stage 1 year 1

Activities and strategies for Key stage 1 year 1

Spoken language/English

There is no specific description for spoken language in the English national curriculum (December 2014) for this key stage/year.

Activities and strategies for Spoken language/English

Language comprehension

There is no description for language comprehension in the English national curriculum (December 2014) for this key stage/year.

Activities and strategies for Language comprehension

Reading

Word reading:

Pupils should be taught to:

  • apply phonic knowledge and skills as the route to decode words
  • respond speedily with the correct sound to graphemes (letters or groups of letters) for all 40+ phonemes, including, where applicable, alternative sounds for graphemes
  • read accurately by blending sounds in unfamiliar words containing GPCs that have been taught
  • read common exception words, noting unusual correspondences between spelling and sound and where these occur in the word
  • read words containing taught GPCs and –s, –es, –ing, –ed, –er and –est endings
  • read other words of more than one syllable that contain taught GPCs
  • read words with contractions [for example, I’m, I’ll, we’ll], and understand that the apostrophe represents the omitted letter(s)
  • read aloud accurately books that are consistent with their developing phonic knowledge and that do not require them to use other strategies to work out words
  • re-read these books to build up their fluency and confidence in word reading.

Reading comprehension:

Pupils should be taught to:

  • develop pleasure in reading, motivation to read, vocabulary and understanding by:
    • listening to and discussing a wide range of poems, stories and non-fiction at a level beyond that at which they can read independently
    • being encouraged to link what they read or hear read to their own experiences
    • becoming very familiar with key stories, fairy stories and traditional tales, retelling them and considering their particular characteristics
    • recognising and joining in with predictable phrases
    • learning to appreciate rhymes and poems, and to recite some by heart
    • discussing word meanings, linking new meanings to those already known
  • understand both the books they can already read accurately and fluently and those they listen to by:
    • drawing on what they already know or on background information and vocabulary provided by the teacher
    • checking that the text makes sense to them as they read and correcting inaccurate reading
    • discussing the significance of the title and events
    • making inferences on the basis of what is being said and done predicting what might happen on the basis of what has been read so far
    • participate in discussion about what is read to them, taking turns and listening to what others say
    • explain clearly their understanding of what is read to them.

Activities and strategies for Reading

Grammar and vocabulary

  • develop their understanding of the concepts set out in English appendix 2 by:
    • leaving spaces between words
    • joining words and joining clauses using ‘and’
    • beginning to punctuate sentences using a capital letter and a full stop, question mark or exclamation mark
    • using a capital letter for names of people, places, the days of the week, and the personal pronoun ‘I’
    • learning the grammar for year 1 in English appendix 2
  • use the grammatical terminology in English English appendix 2 in discussing their writing

Activities and strategies for Grammar and vocabulary

Number

Pupils should be taught to:

  • count to and across 100, forwards and backwards, beginning with 0 or 1, or from any given number
  • count, read and write numbers to 100 in numerals; count in multiples of 2s, 5s and 10s
  • given a number, identify 1 more and 1 less
  • identify and represent numbers using objects and pictorial representations including the number line, and use the language of: equal to, more than, less than (fewer), most, least
  • read and write numbers from 1 to 20 in numerals and words

Pupils should be taught to:

  • read, write and interpret mathematical statements involving addition (+), subtraction (−) and equals (=) signs
  • represent and use number bonds and related subtraction facts within 20
  • add and subtract one-digit and two-digit numbers to 20, including 0
  • solve one-step problems that involve addition and subtraction, using concrete objects and pictorial representations, and missing number problems such as 7 = ? − 9

Pupils should be taught to:

  • solve one-step problems involving multiplication and division, by calculating the answer using concrete objects, pictorial representations and arrays with the support of the teacher

Pupils should be taught to:

  • recognise, find and name a half as 1 of 2 equal parts of an object, shape or quantity
  • recognise, find and name a quarter as 1 of 4 equal parts of an object, shape or quantity

Activities and strategies for Number

Measurement

Pupils should be taught to:

  • compare, describe and solve practical problems for:
    • lengths and heights [for example, long/short, longer/shorter, tall/short, double/half]
    • mass/weight [for example, heavy/light, heavier than, lighter than]
    • capacity and volume [for example, full/empty, more than, less than, half, half full, quarter]
    • time [for example, quicker, slower, earlier, later]
  • measure and begin to record the following:
    • lengths and heights
    • mass/weight
    • capacity and volume
    • time (hours, minutes, seconds)
    • recognise and know the value of different denominations of coins and notes
    • sequence events in chronological order using language [for example, before and after, next, first, today, yesterday, tomorrow, morning, afternoon and evening]
  • recognise and use language relating to dates, including days of the week, weeks, months and years
  • tell the time to the hour and half past the hour and draw the hands on a clock face to show these times

Activities and strategies for Measurement

Geometry

Pupils should be taught to:

  • recognise and name common 2-D and 3-D shapes, including:
    • 2-D shapes [for example, rectangles (including squares), circles and triangles]
    • 3-D shapes [for example, cuboids (including cubes), pyramids and spheres]

Pupils should be taught to:

  • describe position, direction and movement, including whole, half, quarter and three-quarter turns

Activities and strategies for Geometry

Science

Pupils should be taught to:

  • identify and name a variety of common wild and garden plants, including deciduous and evergreen trees
  • identify and describe the basic structure of a variety of common flowering plants, including trees

Pupils should be taught to:

  • identify and name a variety of common animals including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals
  • identify and name a variety of common animals that are carnivores, herbivores and omnivores
  • describe and compare the structure of a variety of common animals (fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals including pets)
  • identify, name, draw and label the basic parts of the human body and say which part of the body is associated with each sense

Pupils should be taught to:

  • distinguish between an object and the material from which it is made
  • identify and name a variety of everyday materials, including wood, plastic, glass, metal, water, and rock
  • describe the simple physical properties of a variety of everyday materials
  • compare and group together a variety of everyday materials on the basis of their simple physical properties

Pupils should be taught to:

  • observe changes across the 4 seasons
  • observe and describe weather associated with the seasons and how day length varies

Activities and strategies for Science

Key stage 1 year 2

Activities and strategies for Key stage 1 year 2

Spoken language/English

There is no specific description for spoken language in the English national curriculum (December 2014) for this key stage/year.

Activities and strategies for Spoken language/English

Language comprehension

There is no description for language comprehension in the English national curriculum (December 2014) for this key stage/year.

Activities and strategies for Language comprehension

Reading

Reading - word reading

Pupils should be taught to:

  • continue to apply phonic knowledge and skills as the route to decode words until automatic decoding has become embedded and reading is fluent
  • read accurately by blending the sounds in words that contain the graphemes taught so far, especially recognising alternative sounds for graphemes
  • read accurately words of two or more syllables that contain the same graphemes as above
  • read words containing common suffixes
  • read further common exception words, noting unusual correspondences between spelling and sound and where these occur in the word
  • read most words quickly and accurately, without overt sounding and blending, when they have been frequently encountered
  • read aloud books closely matched to their improving phonic knowledge, sounding out unfamiliar words accurately, automatically and without undue hesitation
  • reread these books to build up their fluency and confidence in word reading
  • Reading - comprehension

    Pupils should be taught to:

    • develop pleasure in reading, motivation to read, vocabulary and understanding by:
      • listening to, discussing and expressing views about a wide range of contemporary and classic poetry, stories and non-fiction at a level beyond that at which they can read independently
      • discussing the sequence of events in books and how items of information are related
      • becoming increasingly familiar with and retelling a wider range of stories, fairy stories and traditional tales
      • being introduced to non-fiction books that are structured in different ways
      • recognising simple recurring literary language in stories and poetry
      • discussing and clarifying the meanings of words, linking new meanings to known vocabulary
      • discussing their favourite words and phrases
      • continuing to build up a repertoire of poems learnt by heart, appreciating these and reciting some, with appropriate intonation to make the meaning clear
    • understand both the books that they can already read accurately and fluently and those that they listen to by:
      • drawing on what they already know or on background information and vocabulary provided by the teacher
      • checking that the text makes sense to them as they read, and correcting inaccurate reading
      • making inferences on the basis of what is being said and done
      • answering and asking questions
      • predicting what might happen on the basis of what has been read so far
    • participate in discussion about books, poems and other works that are read to them and those that they can read for themselves, taking turns and listening to what others say
    • explain and discuss their understanding of books, poems and other material, both those that they listen to and those that they read for themselves

Activities and strategies for Reading

Grammar and vocabulary

Pupils should be taught to:

  • develop their understanding of the concepts set out in English appendix 2 by:
    • learning how to use both familiar and new punctuation correctly - see English appendix 2, including full stops, capital letters, exclamation marks, question marks, commas for lists and apostrophes for contracted forms and the possessive (singular)
    • learn how to use:
    • sentences with different forms: statement, question, exclamation, command
    • expanded noun phrases to describe and specify [for example, the blue butterfly]
    • the present and past tenses correctly and consistently, including the progressive form
    • subordination (using when, if, that, or because) and co-ordination (using or, and, or but)
    • the grammar for year 2 in English appendix 2
    • some features of written Standard English
  • use and understand the grammatical terminology in English appendix 2 in discussing their writing

Activities and strategies for Grammar and vocabulary

Number

Pupils should be taught to:

  • count in steps of 2, 3, and 5 from 0, and in 10s from any number, forward and backward
  • recognise the place value of each digit in a two-digit number (10s, 1s)
  • identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations, including the number line
  • compare and order numbers from 0 up to 100; use <, > and = signs
  • read and write numbers to at least 100 in numerals and in words
  • use place value and number facts to solve problems

Pupils should be taught to:

  • solve problems with addition and subtraction:
    • using concrete objects and pictorial representations, including those involving numbers, quantities and measures
    • applying their increasing knowledge of mental and written methods
  • recall and use addition and subtraction facts to 20 fluently, and derive and use related facts up to 100
  • add and subtract numbers using concrete objects, pictorial representations, and mentally, including:
    • a two-digit number and 1s
    • a two-digit number and 10s
    • 2 two-digit numbers
    • adding 3 one-digit numbers
  • show that addition of 2 numbers can be done in any order (commutative) and subtraction of 1 number from another cannot
  • recognise and use the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction and use this to check calculations and solve missing number problems

Pupils should be taught to:

  • recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 2, 5 and 10 multiplication tables, including recognising odd and even numbers
  • calculate mathematical statements for multiplication and division within the multiplication tables and write them using the multiplication (×), division (÷) and equals (=) signs
  • show that multiplication of 2 numbers can be done in any order (commutative) and division of 1 number by another cannot
  • solve problems involving multiplication and division, using materials, arrays, repeated addition, mental methods, and multiplication and division facts, including problems in contexts

Pupils should be taught to:

  • recognise, find, name and write fractions 1/3 , 1/4 , 2/4 and 3/4 of a length, shape, set of objects or quantity
  • write simple fractions, for example 1/2 of 6 = 3 and recognise the equivalence of 2/4 and 1/2

Activities and strategies for Number

Measurement

Pupils should be taught to:

  • choose and use appropriate standard units to estimate and measure length/height in any direction (m/cm); mass (kg/g); temperature (°C); capacity (litres/ml) to the nearest appropriate unit, using rulers, scales, thermometers and measuring vessels
  • compare and order lengths, mass, volume/capacity and record the results using >, < and =
  • recognise and use symbols for pounds (£) and pence (p); combine amounts to make a particular value
  • find different combinations of coins that equal the same amounts of money
  • solve simple problems in a practical context involving addition and subtraction of money of the same unit, including giving change
  • compare and sequence intervals of time
  • tell and write the time to five minutes, including quarter past/to the hour and draw the hands on a clock face to show these times
  • know the number of minutes in an hour and the number of hours in a day

Activities and strategies for Measurement

Geometry

Pupils should be taught to:

  • identify and describe the properties of 2-D shapes, including the number of sides, and line symmetry in a vertical line
  • identify and describe the properties of 3-D shapes, including the number of edges, vertices and faces
  • identify 2-D shapes on the surface of 3-D shapes, [for example, a circle on a cylinder and a triangle on a pyramid]
  • compare and sort common 2-D and 3-D shapes and everyday objects

Pupils should be taught to:

  • order and arrange combinations of mathematical objects in patterns and sequences
  • use mathematical vocabulary to describe position, direction and movement, including movement in a straight line and distinguishing between rotation as a turn and in terms of right angles for quarter, half and three-quarter turns (clockwise and anti-clockwise)

Activities and strategies for Geometry

Key stage 2 years 3-4

Activities and strategies for Key stage 2 years 3-4

Reading

Word reading:

Pupils should be taught to:

  • apply their growing knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes (etymology and morphology), both to read aloud and to understand the meaning of new words they meet
  • read further exception words, noting the unusual correspondences between spelling and sound, and where these occur in the word

Reading comprehension

Pupils should be taught to:

  • develop positive attitudes to reading, and an understanding of what they read, by:
    • listening to and discussing a wide range of fiction, poetry, plays, non-fiction and reference books or textbooks
    • reading books that are structured in different ways and reading for a range of purposes
    • using dictionaries to check the meaning of words that they have read
    • increasing their familiarity with a wide range of books, including fairy stories, myths and legends, and retelling some of these orally
    • identifying themes and conventions in a wide range of books
    • preparing poems and play scripts to read aloud and to perform, showing understanding through intonation, tone, volume and action
    • discussing words and phrases that capture the reader’s interest and imagination
    • recognising some different forms of poetry [for example, free verse, narrative poetry]
  • understand what they read, in books they can read independently, by:
    • checking that the text makes sense to them, discussing their understanding, and explaining the meaning of words in context
    • asking questions to improve their understanding of a text
    • drawing inferences such as inferring characters’ feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions, and justifying inferences with evidence
    • predicting what might happen from details stated and implied
    • identifying main ideas drawn from more than 1 paragraph and summarising these
    • identifying how language, structure, and presentation contribute to meaning
  • retrieve and record information from non-fiction
  • participate in discussion about both books that are read to them and those they can read for themselves, taking turns and listening to what others say

Activities and strategies for Reading

Grammar and vocabulary

Pupils should be taught to:

  • develop their understanding of the concepts set out in English appendix 2 by:
    • extending the range of sentences with more than one clause by using a wider range of conjunctions, including: when, if, because, although
    • using the present perfect form of verbs in contrast to the past tense
    • choosing nouns or pronouns appropriately for clarity and cohesion and to avoid repetition
    • using conjunctions, adverbs and prepositions to express time and cause
    • using fronted adverbials
    • learning the grammar for years 3 and 4
  • indicate grammatical and other features by:
    • using commas after fronted adverbials
    • indicating possession by using the possessive apostrophe with plural nouns
    • using and punctuating direct speech
  • use and understand the grammatical terminology in English appendix 2 accurately and appropriately when discussing their writing and reading

Activities and strategies for Grammar and vocabulary

Key stage 2 year 3

Activities and strategies for Key stage 2 year 3

Spoken language/English

There is no specific description for spoken language in the English national curriculum (December 2014) for this key stage/year.

Activities and strategies for Spoken language/English

Language comprehension

There is no description for language comprehension in the English national curriculum (December 2014) for this key stage/year.

Activities and strategies for Language comprehension

Number

Pupils should be taught to:

  • count from 0 in multiples of 4, 8, 50 and 100; find 10 or 100 more or less than a given number
  • recognise the place value of each digit in a 3-digit number (100s, 10s, 1s)
  • compare and order numbers up to 1,000
  • identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations
  • read and write numbers up to 1,000 in numerals and in words
  • solve number problems and practical problems involving these ideas

Pupils should be taught to:

  • add and subtract numbers mentally, including:
    • a three-digit number and 1s
    • a three-digit number and 10s
    • a three-digit number and 100s
  • add and subtract numbers with up to 3 digits, using formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction
  • estimate the answer to a calculation and use inverse operations to check answers
  • solve problems, including missing number problems, using number facts, place value, and more complex addition and subtraction

Pupils should be taught to:

  • recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 3, 4 and 8 multiplication tables
  • write and calculate mathematical statements for multiplication and division using the multiplication tables that they know, including for two-digit numbers times one-digit numbers, using mental and progressing to formal written methods
  • solve problems, including missing number problems, involving multiplication and division, including positive integer scaling problems and correspondence problems in which n objects are connected to m objects

Pupils should be taught to:

  • count up and down in tenths; recognise that tenths arise from dividing an object into 10 equal parts and in dividing one-digit numbers or quantities by 10
  • recognise, find and write fractions of a discrete set of objects: unit fractions and non-unit fractions with small denominators
  • recognise and use fractions as numbers: unit fractions and non-unit fractions with small denominators
  • recognise and show, using diagrams, equivalent fractions with small denominators
  • add and subtract fractions with the same denominator within one whole [for example, 5/7 + 1/7 = 6/7 ]
  • compare and order unit fractions, and fractions with the same denominators
  • solve problems that involve all of the above

Activities and strategies for Number

Measurement

Pupils should be taught to:

  • measure, compare, add and subtract: lengths (m/cm/mm); mass (kg/g); volume/capacity (l/ml)
  • measure the perimeter of simple 2-D shapes
  • add and subtract amounts of money to give change, using both £ and p in practical contexts
  • tell and write the time from an analogue clock, including using Roman numerals from I to XII, and 12-hour and 24-hour clocks
  • estimate and read time with increasing accuracy to the nearest minute; record and compare time in terms of seconds, minutes and hours; use vocabulary such as o’clock, am/pm, morning, afternoon, noon and midnight
  • know the number of seconds in a minute and the number of days in each month, year and leap year
  • compare durations of events [for example, to calculate the time taken by particular events or tasks]

Activities and strategies for Measurement

Geometry

Pupils should be taught to:

  • draw 2-D shapes and make 3-D shapes using modelling materials; recognise 3-D shapes in different orientations and describe them
  • recognise angles as a property of shape or a description of a turn
  • identify right angles, recognise that 2 right angles make a half-turn, 3 make three-quarters of a turn and 4 a complete turn; identify whether angles are greater than or less than a right angle
  • identify horizontal and vertical lines and pairs of perpendicular and parallel lines

Activities and strategies for Geometry

Key stage 2 year 4

Activities and strategies for Key stage 2 year 4

Spoken language/English

There is no specific description for spoken language in the English national curriculum (December 2014) for this key stage/year.

Activities and strategies for Spoken language/English

Language comprehension

There is no description for language comprehension in the English national curriculum (December 2014) for this key stage/year.

Activities and strategies for Language comprehension

Number

Pupils should be taught to:

  • count in multiples of 6, 7, 9, 25 and 1,000
  • find 1,000 more or less than a given number
  • count backwards through 0 to include negative numbers
  • recognise the place value of each digit in a four-digit number (1,000s, 100s, 10s, and 1s)
  • order and compare numbers beyond 1,000
  • identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations
  • round any number to the nearest 10, 100 or 1,000
  • solve number and practical problems that involve all of the above and with increasingly large positive numbers
  • read Roman numerals to 100 (I to C) and know that over time, the numeral system changed to include the concept of 0 and place value

Pupils should be taught to:

  • add and subtract numbers with up to 4 digits using the formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction where appropriate
  • estimate and use inverse operations to check answers to a calculation
  • solve addition and subtraction two-step problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why

Pupils should be taught to:

  • recall multiplication and division facts for multiplication tables up to 12 × 12
  • use place value, known and derived facts to multiply and divide mentally, including: multiplying by 0 and 1; dividing by 1; multiplying together 3 numbers
  • recognise and use factor pairs and commutativity in mental calculations
  • multiply two-digit and three-digit numbers by a one-digit number using formal written layout
  • solve problems involving multiplying and adding, including using the distributive law to multiply two-digit numbers by 1 digit, integer scaling problems and harder correspondence problems such as n objects are connected to m objects

Pupils should be taught to:

  • recognise and show, using diagrams, families of common equivalent fractions
  • count up and down in hundredths; recognise that hundredths arise when dividing an object by 100 and dividing tenths by 10
  • solve problems involving increasingly harder fractions to calculate quantities, and fractions to divide quantities, including non-unit fractions where the answer is a whole number
  • add and subtract fractions with the same denominator
  • recognise and write decimal equivalents of any number of tenths or hundreds
  • recognise and write decimal equivalents to 1/4 , 1/2 , 3/4

  • find the effect of dividing a one- or two-digit number by 10 and 100, identifying the value of the digits in the answer as ones, tenths and hundredths
  • round decimals with 1 decimal place to the nearest whole number
  • compare numbers with the same number of decimal places up to 2 decimal places
  • solve simple measure and money problems involving fractions and decimals to 2 decimal places

Activities and strategies for Number

Measurement

Pupils should be taught to:

  • convert between different units of measure [for example, kilometre to metre; hour to minute]
  • measure and calculate the perimeter of a rectilinear figure (including squares) in centimetres and metres
  • find the area of rectilinear shapes by counting squares
  • estimate, compare and calculate different measures, including money in pounds and pence
  • read, write and convert time between analogue and digital 12- and 24-hour clocks
  • solve problems involving converting from hours to minutes, minutes to seconds, years to months, weeks to days

Activities and strategies for Measurement

Geometry

Pupils should be taught to:

  • compare and classify geometric shapes, including quadrilaterals and triangles, based on their properties and sizes
  • identify acute and obtuse angles and compare and order angles up to 2 right angles by size
  • identify lines of symmetry in 2-D shapes presented in different orientations
  • complete a simple symmetric figure with respect to a specific line of symmetry

Pupils should be taught to:

  • describe positions on a 2-D grid as coordinates in the first quadrant
  • describe movements between positions as translations of a given unit to the left/right and up/down
  • plot specified points and draw sides to complete a given polygon

Activities and strategies for Geometry

Key stage 2 years 5-6

Activities and strategies for Key stage 2 years 5-6

Reading

Word reading:

Pupils should be taught to:

  • apply their growing knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes (morphology and etymology), both to read aloud and to understand the meaning of new words that they meet

Reading comprehension:

Pupils should be taught to:

  • maintain positive attitudes to reading and an understanding of what they read by:
    • continuing to read and discuss an increasingly wide range of fiction, poetry, plays, non-fiction and reference books or textbooks
    • reading books that are structured in different ways and reading for a range of purposes
    • increasing their familiarity with a wide range of books, including myths, legends and traditional stories, modern fiction, fiction from our literary heritage, and books from other cultures and traditions
    • recommending books that they have read to their peers, giving reasons for their choices
    • identifying and discussing themes and conventions in and across a wide range of writing
    • making comparisons within and across books
    • learning a wider range of poetry by heart
    • preparing poems and plays to read aloud and to perform, showing understanding through intonation, tone and volume so that the meaning is clear to an audience
  • understand what they read by:
    • checking that the book makes sense to them, discussing their understanding and exploring the meaning of words in context
    • asking questions to improve their understanding
    • drawing inferences such as inferring characters’ feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions, and justifying inferences with evidence
    • predicting what might happen from details stated and implied
    • summarising the main ideas drawn from more than 1 paragraph, identifying key details that support the main ideas
    • identifying how language, structure and presentation contribute to meaning
  • discuss and evaluate how authors use language, including figurative language, considering the impact on the reader
  • distinguish between statements of fact and opinion
  • retrieve, record and present information from non-fiction
  • participate in discussions about books that are read to them and those they can read for themselves, building on their own and others’ ideas and challenging views courteously
  • explain and discuss their understanding of what they have read, including through formal presentations and debates, maintaining a focus on the topic and using notes where necessary
  • provide reasoned justifications for their views

Activities and strategies for Reading

Grammar and vocabulary

Pupils should be taught to:

  • develop their understanding of the concepts set out in English appendix 2 by:
    • recognising vocabulary and structures that are appropriate for formal speech and writing, including subjunctive forms
    • using passive verbs to affect the presentation of information in a sentence
    • using the perfect form of verbs to mark relationships of time and cause
    • using expanded noun phrases to convey complicated information concisely
    • using modal verbs or adverbs to indicate degrees of possibility
    • using relative clauses beginning with who, which, where, when, whose, that or with an implied (ie omitted) relative pronoun
    • learning the grammar for years 5 and 6 in English appendix 2
  • indicate grammatical and other features by:
    • using commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity in writing
    • using hyphens to avoid ambiguity
    • using brackets, dashes or commas to indicate parenthesis
    • using semicolons, colons or dashes to mark boundaries between independent clauses
    • using a colon to introduce a list
    • punctuating bullet points consistently
  • use and understand the grammatical terminology in English appendix 2 accurately and appropriately in discussing their writing and reading

Activities and strategies for Grammar and vocabulary

Key stage 2 year 5

Activities and strategies for Key stage 2 year 5

Spoken language/English

There is no specific description for spoken language in the English national curriculum (December 2014) for this key stage/year.

Activities and strategies for Spoken language/English

Language comprehension

There is no description for language comprehension in the English national curriculum (December 2014) for this key stage/year.

Activities and strategies for Language comprehension

Number

Pupils should be taught to:

  • read, write, order and compare numbers to at least 1,000,000 and determine the value of each digit
  • count forwards or backwards in steps of powers of 10 for any given number up to 1,000,000
  • interpret negative numbers in context, count forwards and backwards with positive and negative whole numbers, including through 0
  • round any number up to 1,000,000 to the nearest 10, 100, 1,000, 10,000 and 100,000
  • solve number problems and practical problems that involve all of the above
  • read Roman numerals to 1,000 (M) and recognise years written in Roman numerals

Pupils should be taught to:

  • add and subtract whole numbers with more than 4 digits, including using formal written methods (columnar addition and subtraction)
  • add and subtract numbers mentally with increasingly large numbers
  • use rounding to check answers to calculations and determine, in the context of a problem, levels of accuracy
  • solve addition and subtraction multi-step problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why

Pupils should be taught to:

  • identify multiples and factors, including finding all factor pairs of a number, and common factors of 2 numbers
  • know and use the vocabulary of prime numbers, prime factors and composite (non-prime) numbers
  • establish whether a number up to 100 is prime and recall prime numbers up to 19
  • multiply numbers up to 4 digits by a one- or two-digit number using a formal written method, including long multiplication for two-digit numbers
  • multiply and divide numbers mentally, drawing upon known facts
  • divide numbers up to 4 digits by a one-digit number using the formal written method of short division and interpret remainders appropriately for the context
  • multiply and divide whole numbers and those involving decimals by 10, 100 and 1,000
  • recognise and use square numbers and cube numbers, and the notation for squared (²) and cubed (³)
  • solve problems involving multiplication and division, including using their knowledge of factors and multiples, squares and cubes
  • solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division and a combination of these, including understanding the meaning of the equals sign
  • solve problems involving multiplication and division, including scaling by simple fractions and problems involving simple rates

Pupils should be taught to:

  • compare and order fractions whose denominators are all multiples of the same number
  • identify, name and write equivalent fractions of a given fraction, represented visually, including tenths and hundredths
  • recognise mixed numbers and improper fractions and convert from one form to the other and write mathematical statements > 1 as a mixed number [for example, 2/5 + 4/5 = 6/5 = 1 1/5 ]
  • add and subtract fractions with the same denominator, and denominators that are multiples of the same number
  • multiply proper fractions and mixed numbers by whole numbers, supported by materials and diagrams
  • read and write decimal numbers as fractions [for example, 0.71 = 71/100 ]
  • recognise and use thousandths and relate them to tenths, hundredths and decimal equivalents
  • round decimals with 2 decimal places to the nearest whole number and to 1 decimal place
  • read, write, order and compare numbers with up to 3 decimal places
  • solve problems involving number up to 3 decimal places
  • recognise the per cent symbol (%) and understand that per cent relates to ‘number of parts per 100’, and write percentages as a fraction with denominator 100, and as a decimal fraction
  • solve problems which require knowing percentage and decimal equivalents of 1/2 , 1/4 , 1/5 , 2/5 , 4/5 and those fractions with a denominator of a multiple of 10 or 25

Activities and strategies for Number

Measurement

Pupils should be taught to:

  • convert between different units of metric measure [for example, kilometre and metre; centimetre and metre; centimetre and millimetre; gram and kilogram; litre and millilitre]
  • understand and use approximate equivalences between metric units and common imperial units such as inches, pounds and pints
  • measure and calculate the perimeter of composite rectilinear shapes in centimetres and metres
  • calculate and compare the area of rectangles (including squares), including using standard units, square centimetres (cm²) and square metres (m²), and estimate the area of irregular shapes
  • estimate volume [for example, using 1 cm³ blocks to build cuboids (including cubes)] and capacity [for example, using water]
  • solve problems involving converting between units of time
  • use all four operations to solve problems involving measure [for example, length, mass, volume, money] using decimal notation, including scaling

Activities and strategies for Measurement

Geometry

Pupils should be taught to:

  • identify 3-D shapes, including cubes and other cuboids, from 2-D representations
  • know angles are measured in degrees: estimate and compare acute, obtuse and reflex angles
  • draw given angles, and measure them in degrees (°)
  • identify:
    • angles at a point and 1 whole turn (total 360°)
    • angles at a point on a straight line and half a turn (total 180°)
    • other multiples of 90°
    • use the properties of rectangles to deduce related facts and find missing lengths and angles
    • distinguish between regular and irregular polygons based on reasoning about equal sides and angles

Pupils should be taught to:

  • identify, describe and represent the position of a shape following a reflection or translation, using the appropriate language, and know that the shape has not changed

Activities and strategies for Geometry

Key Stage 2 Year 6

Activities and strategies for Key Stage 2 Year 6

Spoken language/English

There is no specific description for spoken language in the English national curriculum (December 2014) for this key stage/year.

Activities and strategies for Spoken language/English

Language comprehension

There is no description for language comprehension in the English national curriculum (December 2014) for this key stage/year.

Activities and strategies for Language comprehension

Number

Pupils should be taught to:

  • read, write, order and compare numbers up to 10,000,000 and determine the value of each digit
  • round any whole number to a required degree of accuracy
  • use negative numbers in context, and calculate intervals across 0
  • solve number and practical problems that involve all of the above

Pupils should be taught to:

  • multiply multi-digit numbers up to 4 digits by a two-digit whole number using the formal written method of long multiplication
  • divide numbers up to 4 digits by a two-digit whole number using the formal written method of long division, and interpret remainders as whole number remainders, fractions, or by rounding, as appropriate for the context
  • divide numbers up to 4 digits by a two-digit number using the formal written method of short division where appropriate, interpreting remainders according to the context
  • perform mental calculations, including with mixed operations and large numbers
  • identify common factors, common multiples and prime numbers
  • use their knowledge of the order of operations to carry out calculations involving the 4 operations
  • solve addition and subtraction multi-step problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why
  • solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division
  • use estimation to check answers to calculations and determine, in the context of a problem, an appropriate degree of accuracy

Pupils should be taught to:

  • use common factors to simplify fractions; use common multiples to express fractions in the same denomination
  • compare and order fractions, including fractions >1
  • add and subtract fractions with different denominators and mixed numbers, using the concept of equivalent fractions
  • multiply simple pairs of proper fractions, writing the answer in its simplest form [for example, 1/4 × 1/2 = 1/8 ]
  • divide proper fractions by whole numbers [for example, 1/3 ÷ 2 = 1/6 ]
  • associate a fraction with division and calculate decimal fraction equivalents [for example, 0.375] for a simple fraction [for example, 3/8 ]
  • identify the value of each digit in numbers given to 3 decimal places and multiply and divide numbers by 10, 100 and 1,000 giving answers up to 3 decimal places
  • multiply one-digit numbers with up to 2 decimal places by whole numbers
  • use written division methods in cases where the answer has up to 2 decimal places
  • solve problems which require answers to be rounded to specified degrees of accuracy
  • recall and use equivalences between simple fractions, decimals and percentages, including in different contexts

Activities and strategies for Number

Measurement

Pupils should be taught to:

  • solve problems involving the calculation and conversion of units of measure, using decimal notation up to 3 decimal places where appropriate
  • use, read, write and convert between standard units, converting measurements of length, mass, volume and time from a smaller unit of measure to a larger unit, and vice versa, using decimal notation to up to 3 decimal places
  • convert between miles and kilometres
  • recognise that shapes with the same areas can have different perimeters and vice versa
  • recognise when it is possible to use formulae for area and volume of shapes
  • calculate the area of parallelograms and triangles
  • calculate, estimate and compare volume of cubes and cuboids using standard units, including cubic centimetres (cm³) and cubic metres (m³), and extending to other units [for example, mm³ and km³]

Activities and strategies for Measurement

Geometry

Pupils should be taught to:

  • draw 2-D shapes using given dimensions and angles
  • recognise, describe and build simple 3-D shapes, including making nets
  • compare and classify geometric shapes based on their properties and sizes and find unknown angles in any triangles, quadrilaterals, and regular polygons
  • illustrate and name parts of circles, including radius, diameter and circumference and know that the diameter is twice the radius
  • recognise angles where they meet at a point, are on a straight line, or are vertically opposite, and find missing angles

Pupils should be taught to:

  • describe positions on the full coordinate grid (all 4 quadrants)
  • draw and translate simple shapes on the coordinate plane, and reflect them in the axes

Activities and strategies for Geometry

Key stage 3

Activities and strategies for Key stage 3

Spoken language/English

Pupils should be taught to:

  • speak confidently and effectively, including through:
    • using Standard English confidently in a range of formal and informal contexts, including classroom discussion
    • giving short speeches and presentations, expressing their own ideas and keeping to the point
    • participating in formal debates and structured discussions, summarising and/or building on what has been said
    • improvising, rehearsing and performing play scripts and poetry in order to generate language and discuss language use and meaning, using role, intonation, tone, volume, mood, silence, stillness and action to add impact.

Activities and strategies for Spoken language/English

Language comprehension

There is no description for language comprehension in the English national curriculum (December 2014) for this key stage.

Activities and strategies for Language comprehension

Reading

Pupils should be taught to:

  • develop an appreciation and love of reading, and read increasingly challenging material independently through:
    • reading a wide range of fiction and non-fiction, including in particular whole books, short stories, poems and plays with a wide coverage of genres, historical periods, forms and authors, including high-quality works from English literature, both pre-1914 and contemporary, including prose, poetry and drama; Shakespeare (2 plays) and seminal world literature
    • choosing and reading books independently for challenge, interest and enjoyment
    • rereading books encountered earlier to increase familiarity with them and provide a basis for making comparisons
  • understand increasingly challenging texts through:
    • learning new vocabulary, relating it explicitly to known vocabulary and understanding it with the help of context and dictionaries
    • making inferences and referring to evidence in the text
    • knowing the purpose, audience for and context of the writing and drawing on this knowledge to support comprehension
    • checking their understanding to make sure that what they have read makes sense
  • read critically through:
    • knowing how language, including figurative language, vocabulary choice, grammar, text structure and organisational features, presents meaning
    • recognising a range of poetic conventions and understanding how these have been used
    • studying setting, plot, and characterisation, and the effects of these
    • understanding how the work of dramatists is communicated effectively through performance and how alternative staging allows for different interpretations of a play
    • making critical comparisons across texts
    • studying a range of authors, including at least 2 authors in depth each year

Activities and strategies for Reading

Grammar and vocabulary

Pupils should be taught to:

  • consolidate and build on their knowledge of grammar and vocabulary through:
    • extending and applying the grammatical knowledge set out in English appendix 2 to the key stage 1 and 2 programmes of study to analyse more challenging texts
    • studying the effectiveness and impact of the grammatical features of the texts they read
    • drawing on new vocabulary and grammatical constructions from their reading and listening, and using these consciously in their writing and speech to achieve particular effects
    • knowing and understanding the differences between spoken and written language, including differences associated with formal and informal registers, and between Standard English and other varieties of English
    • using Standard English confidently in their own writing and speech
    • discussing reading, writing and spoken language with precise and confident use of linguistic and literary terminology.

Activities and strategies for Grammar and vocabulary

Number

Pupils should be taught to:

  • understand and use place value for decimals, measures and integers of any size
  • order positive and negative integers, decimals and fractions; use the number line as a model for ordering of the real numbers; use the symbols =, ≠, <, >, ≤, ≥
  • use the concepts and vocabulary of prime numbers, factors (or divisors), multiples, common factors, common multiples, highest common factor, lowest common multiple, prime factorisation, including using product notation and the unique factorisation property
  • use the 4 operations, including formal written methods, applied to integers, decimals, proper and improper fractions, and mixed numbers, all both positive and negative
  • use conventional notation for the priority of operations, including brackets, powers, roots and reciprocals
  • recognise and use relationships between operations including inverse operations
  • use integer powers and associated real roots (square, cube and higher), recognise powers of 2, 3, 4, 5 and distinguish between exact representations of roots and their decimal approximations
  • interpret and compare numbers in standard form A x 10n 1≤A<10, where n is a positive or negative integer or 0
  • work interchangeably with terminating decimals and their corresponding fractions (such as 3.5 and 7/2 or 0.375 and 3/8 )
  • define percentage as ‘number of parts per hundred’, interpret percentages and percentage changes as a fraction or a decimal, interpret these multiplicatively, express 1 quantity as a percentage of another, compare 2 quantities using percentages, and work with percentages greater than 100%
  • interpret fractions and percentages as operators
  • use standard units of mass, length, time, money and other measures, including with decimal quantities
  • round numbers and measures to an appropriate degree of accuracy [for example, to a number of decimal places or significant figures]
  • use approximation through rounding to estimate answers and calculate possible resulting errors expressed using inequality notation a<x≤b
  • use a calculator and other technologies to calculate results accurately and then interpret them appropriately
  • appreciate the infinite nature of the sets of integers, real and rational numbers

Activities and strategies for Number

Geometry

Pupils should be taught to:

  • derive and apply formulae to calculate and solve problems involving: perimeter and area of triangles, parallelograms, trapezia, volume of cuboids (including cubes) and other prisms (including cylinders)
  • calculate and solve problems involving: perimeters of 2-D shapes (including circles), areas of circles and composite shapes
  • draw and measure line segments and angles in geometric figures, including interpreting scale drawings
  • derive and use the standard ruler and compass constructions (perpendicular bisector of a line segment, constructing a perpendicular to a given line from/at a given point, bisecting a given angle); recognise and use the perpendicular distance from a point to a line as the shortest distance to the line
  • describe, sketch and draw using conventional terms and notations: points, lines, parallel lines, perpendicular lines, right angles, regular polygons, and other polygons that are reflectively and rotationally symmetric
  • use the standard conventions for labelling the sides and angles of triangle ABC, and know and use the criteria for congruence of triangles
  • derive and illustrate properties of triangles, quadrilaterals, circles, and other plane figures [for example, equal lengths and angles] using appropriate language and technologies
  • identify properties of, and describe the results of, translations, rotations and reflections applied to given figures
  • identify and construct congruent triangles, and construct similar shapes by enlargement, with and without coordinate grids
  • apply the properties of angles at a point, angles at a point on a straight line, vertically opposite angles
  • understand and use the relationship between parallel lines and alternate and corresponding angles
  • derive and use the sum of angles in a triangle and use it to deduce the angle sum in any polygon, and to derive properties of regular polygons
  • apply angle facts, triangle congruence, similarity and properties of quadrilaterals to derive results about angles and sides, including Pythagoras’ Theorem, and use known results to obtain simple proofs
  • use Pythagoras’ Theorem and trigonometric ratios in similar triangles to solve problems involving right-angled triangles
  • use the properties of faces, surfaces, edges and vertices of cubes, cuboids, prisms, cylinders, pyramids, cones and spheres to solve problems in 3-D
  • interpret mathematical relationships both algebraically and geometrically

Activities and strategies for Geometry

Key stage 4

Activities and strategies for Key stage 4

Spoken language/English

Pupils should be taught to:

  • speak confidently, audibly and effectively, including through:
    • using Standard English when the context and audience require it
    • working effectively in groups of different sizes and taking on required roles, including leading and managing discussions, involving others productively, reviewing and summarising, and contributing to meeting goals/deadlines
    • listening to and building on the contributions of others, asking questions to clarify and inform, and challenging courteously when necessary
    • planning for different purposes and audiences, including selecting and organising information and ideas effectively and persuasively for formal spoken presentations and debates
    • listening and responding in a variety of different contexts, both formal and informal, and evaluating content, viewpoints, evidence and aspects of presentation
    • improvising, rehearsing and performing play scripts and poetry in order to generate language and discuss language use and meaning, using role, intonation, tone, volume, mood, silence, stillness and action to add impact.

Activities and strategies for Spoken language/English

Language comprehension

There is no description for language comprehension in the English national curriculum (December 2014) for this key stage.

Activities and strategies for Language comprehension

Reading

Pupils should be taught to:

  • read and appreciate the depth and power of the English literary heritage through:

    • reading a wide range of high-quality, challenging, classic literature and extended literary non-fiction, such as essays, reviews and journalism. This writing should include whole texts. The range will include:

      • at least one play by Shakespeare
      • works from the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries
      • poetry since 1789, including representative Romantic poetry
    • re-reading literature and other writing as a basis for making comparisons
    • choosing and reading books independently for challenge, interest and enjoyment
  • understand and critically evaluate texts through:

    • reading in different ways for different purposes, summarising and synthesising ideas and information, and evaluating their usefulness for particular purposes
    • drawing on knowledge of the purpose, audience for and context of the writing, including its social, historical and cultural context and the literary tradition to which it belongs, to inform evaluation
    • identifying and interpreting themes, ideas and information
    • exploring aspects of plot, characterisation, events and settings, the relationships between them and their effects
    • seeking evidence in the text to support a point of view, including justifying inferences with evidence
    • distinguishing between statements that are supported by evidence and those that are not, and identifying bias and misuse of evidence
    • analysing a writer’s choice of vocabulary, form, grammatical and structural features, and evaluating their effectiveness and impact
    • making critical comparisons, referring to the contexts, themes, characterisation, style and literary quality of texts, and drawing on knowledge and skills from wider reading
  • make an informed personal response, recognising that other responses to a text are possible and evaluating these

Activities and strategies for Reading

Grammar and vocabulary

Pupils should be taught to:

  • consolidate and build on their knowledge of grammar and vocabulary through:

    • studying their effectiveness and impact in the texts they read
    • drawing on new vocabulary and grammatical constructions from their reading and listening, and using these consciously in their writing and speech to achieve particular effects
    • analysing some of the differences between spoken and written language, including differences associated with formal and informal registers, and between Standard English and other varieties of English
    • using linguistic and literary terminology accurately and confidently in discussing reading, writing and spoken language

Activities and strategies for Grammar and vocabulary

Number

In addition to consolidating subject content from key stage 3, pupils should be taught to:

  • apply systematic listing strategies, {including use of the product rule for counting}
  • {estimate powers and roots of any given positive number}
  • calculate with roots, and with integer {and fractional} indices
  • calculate exactly with fractions, {surds} and multiples of π {simplify surd expressions involving squares [for example √12 = √(4 × 3) = √4 × √3 = 2√3] and rationalise denominators}
  • calculate with numbers in standard form A × 10n, where 1 ≤ A < 10 and n is an integer
  • {change recurring decimals into their corresponding fractions and vice versa}
  • identify and work with fractions in ratio problems
  • apply and interpret limits of accuracy when rounding or truncating, {including upper and lower bounds}

Activities and strategies for Number

Geometry

In addition to consolidating subject content from key stage 3, pupils should be taught to:

  • interpret and use fractional {and negative} scale factors for enlargements
  • {describe the changes and invariance achieved by combinations of rotations, reflections and translations}
  • identify and apply circle definitions and properties, including: centre, radius, chord, diameter, circumference, tangent, arc, sector and segment
  • {apply and prove the standard circle theorems concerning angles, radii, tangents and chords, and use them to prove related results}
  • construct and interpret plans and elevations of 3D shapes
  • interpret and use bearings
  • calculate arc lengths, angles and areas of sectors of circles
  • calculate surface areas and volumes of spheres, pyramids, cones and composite solids
  • apply the concepts of congruence and similarity, including the relationships between lengths, {areas and volumes} in similar figures
  • apply Pythagoras’ Theorem and trigonometric ratios to find angles and lengths in right-angled triangles {and, where possible, general triangles} in 2 {and 3} dimensional figures
  • know the exact values of sin θ and cos θ for θ = 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90°; know the exact value of tan θ for θ = 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°
  • {know and apply the sine rule, a/sinA = b/sinB = c/sinC , and cosine rule, a2 = b2 + c2 - 2bc cos A, to find unknown lengths and angles}
  • {know and apply Area = 1/2 ab sin C to calculate the area, sides or angles of any triangle}
  • describe translations as 2D vectors
  • apply addition and subtraction of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a scalar, and diagrammatic and column representations of vectors; {use vectors to construct geometric arguments and proofs}

Activities and strategies for Geometry

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