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P Scales/Curriculum Levels  

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Levels as described in the P-Scales and former UK England and Wales National Curriculum using levels. Copyright QCDA.

P1-P3

Activities and strategies for P1-P3

English

From simple reflex responses to emerging conventional communication.

Activities and strategies for English

Maths

From simple reflex responses to emerging conventional communication.

Activities and strategies for Maths

Science

From simple reflex responses to emerging conventional communication.

Activities and strategies for Science

PSHE and Citizenship

From simple reflex responses to emerging conventional communication.

Activities and strategies for PSHE and Citizenship

P1

Activities and strategies for P1

P1i

Activities and strategies for P1i

English

Pupils encounter activities and experiences. They may be passive or resistant. They may show simple reflex responses, for example, startling at sudden noises or movements. Any participation is fully prompted.

Activities and strategies for English

Maths

Pupils encounter activities and experiences. They may be passive or resistant. They may show simple reflex responses, for example, startling at sudden noises or movements. Any participation is fully prompted.

Activities and strategies for Maths

Science

Pupils encounter activities and experiences. They may be passive or resistant. They may show simple reflex responses, for example, startling at sudden noises or movements. Any participation is fully prompted.

Activities and strategies for Science

PSHE and Citizenship

Pupils encounter activities and experiences. They may be passive or resistant. They may show simple reflex responses, for example, startling at sudden noises or movements. Any participation is fully prompted.

Activities and strategies for PSHE and Citizenship

ICT

Pupils encounter activities and experiences. They may be passive or resistant. They may show simple reflex responses, for example, startling at sudden noises or movements. Any participation is fully prompted.

Activities and strategies for ICT

Design and Technology

Pupils encounter activities and experiences. They may be passive or resistant. They may show simple reflex responses, for example, startling at sudden noises or movements. Any participation is fully prompted.

Activities and strategies for Design and Technology

P1ii

Activities and strategies for P1ii

English

Pupils show emerging awareness of activities and experiences. They may have periods when they appear alert and ready to focus their attention on certain people, events, objects or parts of objects, for example, attending briefly to interactions with a familiar person. They may give intermittent reactions, for example, sometimes becoming excited in the midst of social activity.

Activities and strategies for English

Maths

Pupils show emerging awareness of activities and experiences. They may have periods when they appear alert and ready to focus their attention on certain people, events, objects or parts of objects, for example, grasping objects briefly when they are placed in their hand. They may give intermittent reactions, for example, sometimes showing surprise at the sudden presence or absence of an event or object.

Activities and strategies for Maths

Science

Pupils show emerging awareness of activities and experiences. They may have periods when they appear alert and ready to focus their attention on certain people, events, objects or parts of objects, for example, looking towards flashes of light or turning towards loud sounds. They may give intermittent reactions, for example, sometimes withdrawing their hands from changes in temperature.

Activities and strategies for Science

PSHE and Citizenship

Pupils show emerging awareness of activities and experiences. They may have periods when they appear alert and ready to focus their attention on certain people, events, objects or parts of objects, for example, turning briefly towards another person. They may give intermittent reactions, for example, beginning to tolerate some activities, but ‘switching off’ if the activity becomes too intense.

Activities and strategies for PSHE and Citizenship

ICT

Pupils show emerging awareness of activities and experiences. They may have periods when they appear alert and ready to focus their attention on certain people, events, objects or parts of objects, for example, attending briefly to lights, sounds or patterns of movement. They may give intermittent reactions, for example, sometimes becoming quiet in response to the vibration of a bubble tube.

Activities and strategies for ICT

Design and Technology

Pupils show emerging awareness of activities and experiences. They may have periods when they appear alert and ready to focus their attention on certain people, events, objects or parts of objects, for example, pausing over food smells in the room. They may give intermittent reactions, for example, sometimes briefly grasping materials placed in their hands.

Activities and strategies for Design and Technology

P2

Activities and strategies for P2

P2i

Activities and strategies for P2i

English

Pupils begin to respond consistently to familiar people, events and objects. They react to new activities and experiences, for example, withholding their attention. They begin to show interest in people, events and objects, for example, smiling at familiar people. They accept and engage in coactive exploration, for example, focusing their attention on sensory aspects of stories or rhymes when prompted.

Activities and strategies for English

Maths

Pupils begin to respond consistently to familiar people, events and objects. They react to new activities and experiences, for example, becoming excited or alarmed when a routine is broken. They begin to show interest in people, events and objects, for example, tracking objects briefly across their field of awareness. They accept and engage in coactive exploration, for example, lifting objects briefly towards the face in shared investigations.

Activities and strategies for Maths

Science

Pupils begin to respond consistently to familiar people, events and objects. They react to new activities and experiences, for example, discarding objects with unfamiliar textures. They begin to show interest in people, events and objects, for example, leaning forward to follow the scent of a crushed herb. They accept and engage in coactive exploration, for example, feeling materials in hand-over-hand partnerships with a member of staff.

Activities and strategies for Science

PSHE and Citizenship

Pupils begin to respond consistently to familiar people, events and objects. They react to new activities and experiences, for example, withdrawing from a person who is new to them. They begin to show interest in people, events and objects, for example, watching as they bring their own hands together. They accept and engage in coactive exploration, for example, sharing a hand massage with an adult.

Activities and strategies for PSHE and Citizenship

ICT

Pupils begin to respond consistently to familiar people, events and objects. They react to new activities and experiences, for example, enjoying the movement of air as a nearby electric fan is switched on. They begin to show interest in people, events and objects, for example, tracking moving images briefly across a television or monitor screen. They accept and engage in coactive exploration, for example, being encouraged to handle fibre-optic strands.

Activities and strategies for ICT

Design and Technology

Pupils begin to respond consistently to familiar people, events and objects. They react to new activities and experiences, for example, turning to a particular food item. They begin to show interest in people, events and objects, for example, briefly focusing on the sound of a making activity. They accept and engage in coactive exploration, for example, with staff support, feeling the textures of wood, metal, plastic, fabric and foods.

Activities and strategies for Design and Technology

P2ii

Activities and strategies for P2ii

English

Pupils begin to be proactive in their interactions. They communicate consistent preferences and affective responses, for example, reaching out to a favourite person. They recognise familiar people, events and objects, for example, vocalising or gesturing in a particular way in response to a favourite visitor. They perform actions, often by trial and improvement, and they remember learned responses over short periods of time, for example, showing pleasure each time a particular puppet character appears in a poem dramatised with sensory cues. They cooperate with shared exploration and supported participation, for example, taking turns in interactions with a familiar person, imitating actions and facial expressions.

Activities and strategies for English

Maths

Pupils begin to be proactive in their interactions. They communicate consistent preferences and affective responses, for example, showing a desire to hold a favourite object. They recognise familiar people, events and objects, for example, looking towards their own lunch box when offered a selection. They perform actions, often by trial and improvement, and they remember learned responses over short periods of time, for example, repeating an action with a familiar item of equipment. They cooperate with shared exploration and supported participation, for example, handling and feeling the texture of objects passed to them.

Activities and strategies for Maths

Science

Pupils begin to be proactive in their interactions. They communicate consistent preferences and affective responses, for example, showing a consistent dislike for certain flavours or textures. They recognise familiar people, events and objects, for example, moving towards particular features of familiar environments. They perform actions, often by trial and improvement, and they remember learned responses over short periods of time, for example, rejecting food items after recent experience of bitter flavours. They cooperate with shared exploration and supported participation, for example, examining materials handed to them.

Activities and strategies for Science

PSHE and Citizenship

Pupils begin to be proactive in their interactions. They communicate consistent preferences and affective responses, for example, expressing their immediate needs and feelings. They recognise familiar people, events and objects, for example, vocalising or gesturing in a particular way to another member of the class. They perform actions, often by trial and improvement, and they remember learned responses over short periods of time, for example, making similar responses several times during an interactive sequence with an adult. They cooperate with shared exploration and supported participation, for example, handling personal belongings passed to them.

Activities and strategies for PSHE and Citizenship

ICT

Pupils begin to be proactive in their interactions. They communicate consistent preferences and affective responses, for example, turning towards the source of preferred music. They recognise familiar people, events and objects, for example, moving towards the television in a familiar room. They perform actions, often by trial and improvement, and they remember learned responses over short periods of time, for example, pressing a switch repeatedly to turn on a light or sound source. They cooperate with shared exploration and supported participation, for example, working with an adult or a peer to operate a touch screen.

Activities and strategies for ICT

Design and Technology

Pupils begin to be proactive in their interactions. They communicate consistent preferences and affective responses, for example, turning towards a particular food item or colour product. They recognise familiar people, events and objects, for example, grasping the handle of a tool. They perform actions, often by trial and improvement, and they remember learned responses over short periods of time, for example, lifting and lowering a tool or pressing their fingers into soft dough several times. They cooperate with shared exploration and supported participation, for example, working with an adult to apply glue to a surface.

Activities and strategies for Design and Technology

P3

Activities and strategies for P3

P3i

Activities and strategies for P3i

English

Pupils begin to communicate intentionally. They seek attention through eye contact, gesture or action. They request events or activities, for example, pointing to key objects or people. They participate in shared activities with less support. They sustain concentration for short periods. They explore materials in increasingly complex ways, for example, reaching out and feeling for objects as tactile cues to events. They observe the results of their own actions with interest, for example, listening to their own vocalisations. They remember learned responses over more extended periods, for example, following the sequence of a familiar daily routine and responding appropriately.

Activities and strategies for English

Maths

Pupils begin to communicate intentionally. They seek attention through eye contact, gesture or action. They request events or activities, for example, pushing an item of equipment towards a member of staff. They participate in shared activities with less support. They sustain concentration for short periods. They explore materials in increasingly complex ways, for example, banging or rubbing objects together. They observe the results of their own actions with interest, for example, as they throw or drop objects on to different surfaces. They remember learned responses over more extended periods, for example, remembering how to activate a pop-up object from a previous lesson.

Activities and strategies for Maths

Science

Pupils begin to communicate intentionally. They seek attention through eye contact, gesture or action. They request events or activities, for example, reaching out towards a sound making object. They participate in shared activities with less support. They sustain concentration for short periods. They explore materials in increasingly complex ways, for example, pressing hard objects into soft textures. They observe the results of their own actions with interest, for example, scrunching up paper and examining the product. They remember learned responses over more extended periods, for example, reaching out to touch a live animal with caution and sensitivity.

Activities and strategies for Science

PSHE and Citizenship

Pupils begin to communicate intentionally. They seek attention through eye contact, gesture or action. They request events or activities, for example, prompting a peer or adult to continue an interaction. They participate in shared activities with less support. They sustain concentration for short periods. They explore materials in increasingly complex ways, for example, reaching out to touch the hair or face of another person during an interactive sequence. They observe the results of their own actions with interest, for example, listening as an adult imitates their own vocalisations. They remember learned responses over more extended periods, for example, cooperating with support for frequently-repeated personal care procedures from day-to-day.

Activities and strategies for PSHE and Citizenship

ICT

Pupils begin to communicate intentionally. They seek attention through eye contact, gesture or action. They request events or activities, for example, pushing another person’s hand towards a switch. They participate in shared activities with less support. They sustain concentration for short periods. They explore materials in increasingly complex ways, for example, moving in and out of a sound beam to create different effects. They observe the results of their own actions with interest, for example, feeling the changing vibrations as they switch a massage table on and off. They remember learned responses over more extended periods, for example, returning to a favourite item of equipment in the multi-sensory environment from session to session.

Activities and strategies for ICT

Design and Technology

Pupils begin to communicate intentionally. They seek attention through eye contact, gesture or action. They request events or activities, for example, reaching out towards a particular piece of equipment. They participate in shared activities with less support. They sustain concentration for short periods. They explore materials in increasingly complex ways, for example, tearing, squashing, mixing or bending materials. They observe the results of their own actions with interest, for example, after bending sheet materials. They remember learned responses over more extended periods, for example, banging with a hammer.

Activities and strategies for Design and Technology

P3ii

Activities and strategies for P3ii

English

Pupils use emerging conventional communication. They greet known people and may initiate interactions and activities, for example, prompting another person to join in with an interactive sequence. They can remember learned responses over increasing periods of time and may anticipate known events, for example, pre-empting sounds or actions in familiar poems. They may respond to options and choices with actions or gestures, for example, by nodding or shaking their heads. They actively explore objects and events for more extended periods, for example, turning the pages in a book shared with another person. They apply potential solutions systematically to problems, for example, bringing an object to an adult in order to request a new activity.

Activities and strategies for English

Maths

Pupils use emerging conventional communication. They greet known people and may initiate interactions and activities, for example, dropping objects to prompt interventions from adults. They can remember learned responses over increasing periods of time and may anticipate known events, for example, collecting coats and bags at the end of the school day. They may respond to options and choices with actions or gestures, for example, pointing to or giving one object rather than another. They actively explore objects and events for more extended periods, for example, manipulating objects in piles, groups or stacks. They apply potential solutions systematically to problems, for example, using items of equipment purposefully and appropriately.

Activities and strategies for Maths

Science

Pupils use emerging conventional communication. They greet known people and may initiate interactions and activities, for example, switching on a favourite piece of equipment in the light and sound room. They can remember learned responses over increasing periods of time and may anticipate known events, for example, balls falling and bouncing on the floor. They may respond to options and choices with actions or gestures, for example, touching one substance rather than another. They actively explore objects and events for more extended periods, for example, feeling the textures of different parts of a plant. They apply potential solutions systematically to problems, for example, tipping a container in order to pour out its contents.

Activities and strategies for Science

PSHE and Citizenship

Pupils use emerging conventional communication. They greet known people and may initiate interactions and activities, for example, prompting responses from another pupil. They can remember learned responses over increasing periods of time and may anticipate known events, for example, taking a place at the table when drink time is signalled. They may respond to options and choices with actions or gestures, for example, eye pointing to their choice of a play or work partner. They actively explore objects and events for more extended periods, for example, prolonging an interactive sequence by producing new behaviours and triggering new responses from a partner. They apply potential solutions systematically to problems, for example, vocalising repeatedly to request an interaction with a peer or adult.

Activities and strategies for PSHE and Citizenship

ICT

Pupils use emerging conventional communication. They greet known people and may initiate interactions and activities, for example, switching on a tape or CD player. They can remember learned responses over increasing periods of time and may anticipate known events, for example, looking at the monitor screen as they activate a concept keyboard. They may respond to options and choices with actions or gestures, for example, operating one switch rather than another to achieve a desired result. They actively explore objects and events for more extended periods, for example, creating effects using a touch screen. They apply potential solutions systematically to problems, for example, pressing a switch repeatedly after the power source has been turned off.

Activities and strategies for ICT

Design and Technology

Pupils use emerging conventional communication. They greet known people and may initiate interactions and activities, for example, pushing the spoon into the mixing bowl. They can remember learned responses over increasing periods of time and may anticipate known events, for example, covering their ears before a loud sound. They may respond to options and choices with actions or gestures, for example, picking up one tool rather than another. They actively explore objects and events for more extended periods, for example, banging, scraping, rubbing or pressing tools against a surface. They apply potential solutions systematically to problems, for example, pressing materials together.

Activities and strategies for Design and Technology

P4-P8

Activities and strategies for P4-P8

English

From single words to four key word comprehension and expression.

Activities and strategies for English

Maths

From beginning object permanence to concepts of position size and quantity.

Activities and strategies for Maths

Science

From imitating actions involving main body parts to sorting materials according to simple criteria.

Activities and strategies for Science

PSHE and Citizenship

From beginning to respond to the feelings of others to choosing initiating and following through new tasks and self-selected activities.

Activities and strategies for PSHE and Citizenship

P4

Activities and strategies for P4

English Speaking

Pupils repeat, copy and imitate between 10 and 50 single words, signs or phrases or use a repertoire of objects of reference or symbols. They use single words, signs and symbols for familiar objects, for example, cup, biscuit, and to communicate about events and feelings, for example, likes and dislikes.

Activities and strategies for English Speaking

English Listening

Pupils demonstrate an understanding of at least 50 words, including the names of familiar objects. Pupils respond appropriately to simple requests which contain one key word, sign or symbol in familiar situations, for example, 'Get your coat', 'Stand up' or 'Clap your hands'.

Activities and strategies for English Listening

English Reading

Pupils listen and respond to familiar rhymes and stories. They show some understanding of how books work, for example, turning pages and holding the book the right way up.

Activities and strategies for English Reading

English Writing

Pupils show they understand that marks and symbols convey meaning, for example, placing photographs or symbols on a timetable or in a sequence. They make marks or symbols in their preferred mode of communication.

Activities and strategies for English Writing

Maths Using and Applying

Pupils are aware of cause and effects in familiar mathematical activities, for example, knowing that in a role-play shop a coin can be exchanged for an item; hitting a mathematical shape on a concept keyboard to make it appear on the screen. Pupils show awareness of changes in shape, position or quantity, for example, grouping objects that have similar key features such as shape; creating very simple sequences of light or sound using switched equipment; recalling an object which has been placed out of sight. They anticipate, follow and join in familiar activities when given a contextual clue, for example, anticipating the next chorus or action in songs and rhymes; matching cakes to plates.

Activities and strategies for Maths Using and Applying

Maths Number and Algebra

Pupils show an awareness of number activities and counting, for example copying some actions during number rhymes, songs and number games; following a sequence of pictures or numbers as indicated by a known person during number rhymes and songs.

Activities and strategies for Maths Number and Algebra

Maths Shape Space and Measures

Pupils search for objects that have gone out of sight, hearing or touch, demonstrating the beginning of object permanence, for example, searching for an object or sound when it is removed. Pupils match big objects and small objects, for example, finding a big football to place in a net with other big footballs, matching a small model car with a similar sized model car. They demonstrate interest in position and the relationship between objects, for example, stacking or joining objects or using construction materials.

Activities and strategies for Maths Shape Space and Measures

Science

Pupils explore objects and materials provided, changing some materials by physical means and observing the outcomes, for example, when mixing flour and water. Pupils communicate their awareness of changes in light, sound or movement. They imitate actions involving main body parts, for example, clapping or stamping. They make sounds using their own bodies, for example, tapping, singing or vocalising, and imitate or copy sounds. They cause movement by a pushing or pulling action. ‘Explore’ includes access through any sensory mode. Teachers should ensure they are assessing intended, not accidental, actions.

Activities and strategies for Science

PSHE and Citizenship

Pupils express their feelings, needs, likes and dislikes using single elements of communication (words, gestures, signs or symbols). They engage in parallel activity with several others. Pupils follow familiar routines and take part in familiar tasks or activities with support from others. They show an understanding of ‘yes’ and ‘no’, and recognise and respond to animated praise or criticism. They begin to respond to the feelings of others, for example, matching their emotions and becoming upset.

Activities and strategies for PSHE and Citizenship

ICT

Pupils make selections to communicate meanings, for example, identifying a symbol or creating a sound. Pupils make selections to generate familiar/preferred sounds or images. They know that certain actions produce predictable results, for example, using a switch to activate a tape recorder. The assumption is that the pupil will use their preferred method of access throughout.

Activities and strategies for ICT

Design and Technology

With help, pupils begin to assemble components provided for an activity, for example, placing bricks together. They contribute to activities by coactively grasping and moving simple tools, for example, a glue spreader. They explore options within a limited range of materials, for example, adding grapes or chopped apple to a fruit salad.

Activities and strategies for Design and Technology

P5

Activities and strategies for P5

English Speaking

Pupils combine two key ideas or concepts. They combine single words, signs or symbols to communicate meaning to a range of listeners, for example, ‘Mummy gone’ or ‘more drink’. They make attempts to repair misunderstandings without changing the words used, for example, by repeating a word with a different intonation or facial expression. Pupils use a vocabulary of over 50 words.

Activities and strategies for English Speaking

English Listening

Pupils respond appropriately to questions about familiar or immediate events or experiences for example, 'Where is the ball?', 'What are you doing?', 'Is it yellow?'. They follow requests and instructions containing at least two key words, signs or symbols, for example, 'Put the spoon in the dish', 'Give the book to Johnny'.

Activities and strategies for English Listening

English Reading

Pupils select a few words, symbols or pictures with which they are particularly familiar and derive some meaning from text, symbols or pictures presented in a way familiar to them. They match objects to pictures and symbols, for example, choosing between two symbols to select a drink or seeing a photograph of a child and eye-pointing at the child. They show curiosity about content at a simple level, for example, they may answer basic two key-word questions about a story.

Activities and strategies for English Reading

English Writing

Pupils produce meaningful marks or symbols associated with their own name or familiar spoken words, actions, images or events, for example, contributing to records of their own achievements or to books about themselves, their families and interests. They trace, overwrite or copy shapes and straight line patterns.

Activities and strategies for English Writing

Maths Using and Applying

Pupils sort or match objects or pictures by recognising similarities, for example, matching shoes or socks by placing next to one placed by an adult; find matching pairs from a collection of pictures; collecting objects given one criterion e.g. blue or big. They make sets that have the same small number of objects in each, for example, distributing sweets into containers so that there are one or two in each. They solve simple problems practically, for example, selecting appropriate containers for items of different sizes; checking there is a knife for every fork.

Activities and strategies for Maths Using and Applying

Maths Number and Algebra

Pupils respond to and join in with familiar number rhymes, stories, songs and games, for example, using a series of actions during the singing of a familiar song; joining in by saying, signing or indicating at least one of the numbers in a familiar number rhyme. Pupils can indicate one or two, for example by using eye pointing, blinks, gestures or any other means to indicate one or two, as required. They demonstrate that they are aware of contrasting quantities, for example ‘one’ and ‘lots’ by making groups of one or lots of food items on plates.

Activities and strategies for Maths Number and Algebra

Maths Shape Space and Measures

Pupils search intentionally for objects in their usual place, for example, going to the mathematics shelf for the box of shapes. They find big and small objects on request, for example, from a choice of two objects, identifying the ‘big’ and ‘small’. They compare the overall size of one object with that of another where there is a marked difference, for example, they indicate which of two shoes is the bigger, compare objects – big boxes and small boxes. They explore the position of objects, for example, placing objects in and out of containers, placing objects inside and outside a hoop, fitting as many objects as possible into a box.

Activities and strategies for Maths Shape Space and Measures

Science

Pupils take part in activities focused on the anticipation of and enquiry into specific environments, for example, finding a hamster under straw, or a CD or video in a pile. They match objects and materials in terms of single features or properties, for example, temperature or colour. They indicate the before and after of material changes. They try out a range of equipment in familiar and relevant situations, for example, initiating the activation of a range of light sources. They respond to simple scientific questions, for example, ‘Show me the flower’ ’Is this wet/dry?’ ‘Showing’, ‘demonstrating’ ‘trying out’ ‘responding’ etc may be done by any means appropriate to the pupil’s preferred mode of communication and physical abilities. For some pupils this may mean directing an adult undertaking the task.

Activities and strategies for Science

PSHE and Citizenship

Pupils take part in work or play involving two or three others. They maintain interactions and take turns in a small group with some support. Pupils combine two elements of communication to express their feelings, needs and choices. They join in discussions by responding appropriately (vocalising, using gestures, symbols or signing) to simple questions about familiar events or experiences, for example, ‘What does the baby need?’

Activities and strategies for PSHE and Citizenship

ICT

Pupils use computer programs, for example, to move a device to manipulate something on screen. They make connections between control devices and information on screen, for example, pressing a specific graphic on a touch screen.

Activities and strategies for ICT

Design and Technology

Pupils use a basic tool, with support, for example, pushing a roller. They demonstrate preferences for products, materials and ingredients, for example, selecting a preferred filling for a sandwich.

Activities and strategies for Design and Technology

P6

Activities and strategies for P6

English Speaking

Pupils initiate and maintain short conversations using their preferred medium of communication. They ask simple questions to obtain information, for example, ‘Where’s cat?’. They can use prepositions, such as ‘in’ or ‘on’, and pronouns, such as ‘my’ or ‘it’, correctly.

Activities and strategies for English Speaking

English Listening

Pupils respond to others in group situations, for example, taking turns appropriately in a game such as 'Pass the parcel'. They follow requests and instructions with three key words, signs or symbols, for example, 'Give me the little red book'.

Activities and strategies for English Listening

English Reading

Pupils select and recognise or read a small number of words or symbols linked to a familiar vocabulary, for example, name, people, objects or actions. They match letters and short words.

Activities and strategies for English Reading

English Writing

Pupils produce or write their name in letters or symbols. They copy letter forms, for example, labels and/or captions for pictures or for displays.

Activities and strategies for English Writing

Maths Using and Applying

Pupils sort objects and materials according to a given criteria, for example, sorting footballs into a net and table tennis balls into a box. They copy simple patterns or sequences, for example, copying a drumbeat; copying a simple pattern of repeated movements; copying a pattern of large and small cups.

Activities and strategies for Maths Using and Applying

Maths Number and Algebra

Pupils demonstrate an understanding of one-to-one correspondence in a range of contexts, for example: matching objects such as cups to saucers, straws to drink cartons. Pupils join in rote counting up to five, for example, saying or signing number names to 5 in counting activities. They count reliably to three, make sets of up to three objects and use numbers to three in familiar activities and games, for example, touching one, two, three items as an adult counts, counting toys or pictures, counting out sets of three, e.g. knife, fork and spoon. They demonstrate an understanding of the concept of ‘more, for example, indicating that more cups, counters, food items are required. They join in with new number rhymes, songs, stories and games.

Activities and strategies for Maths Number and Algebra

Maths Shape Space and Measures

Pupils search for objects not found in their usual place demonstrating their understanding of object permanence, for example, looking for cups when they are not in their usual cupboard. They compare the overall size of one object with that of another where the difference is not great, for example, identifying the bigger of two Russian Dolls or nesting cubes. They manipulate three-dimensional shapes, for example, putting shapes into a shape sorter, using 3D objects to build and manipulate in role-play, rolling a tube in a race with a partner. They show understanding of words signs and symbols that describe positions, for example, responding to a request to put an object in, on, under or inside another object.

Activities and strategies for Maths Shape Space and Measures

Science

Pupils recognise distinctive features of objects, for example, the features of living things in their environment, and know where they belong, for example, feathers on a bird, leaves on a tree. They begin to make generalisations, connections and predictions from regular experience, for example, expecting that ice cream will melt, or making wheeled objects move faster by pushing on a smooth surface or releasing them down a slope. Pupils sort materials according to a single criterion when the contrast is obvious. They closely observe the changes that occur, for example, when materials are heated, cooled or mixed. Pupils identify some appliances that use electricity. They show they know some sources of sound and light, for example, remembering their location.

Activities and strategies for Science

PSHE and Citizenship

Pupils respond to others in group situations, playing or working in a small group cooperatively, for example, taking turns appropriately. They carry out routine activities in a familiar context and show an awareness of the results of their own actions. They may show concern for others, for example, through facial expressions, gestures or tone of voice, and sympathy for others in distress and offer comfort.

Activities and strategies for PSHE and Citizenship

ICT

Pupils use ICT to interact with other pupils and adults, for example, touching the screen to respond to another’s action in an on-screen game. They use a keyboard or touch screen to select letters and/or images for their own names. They show they understand that information can be stored on a computer, for example, they ask to see a picture saved earlier. They respond to simple instructions to control a device, for example, using a photocopier to duplicate their work. They operate some devices independently.

Activities and strategies for ICT

Design and Technology

Pupils recognise familiar products and explore the different parts they are made from. They watch others using a basic tool and copy the actions, for example, preparing a surface with a glass paper block. They begin to offer responses to making activities, for example, suggesting the colour or shape of a product.

Activities and strategies for Design and Technology

P7

Activities and strategies for P7

English Speaking

Pupils use phrases with up to three key words, signs or symbols to communicate simple ideas, events or stories to others, for example, ‘I want big chocolate muffin’. They use regular plurals correctly. They communicate ideas about present, past and future events and experiences, using simple phrases and statements, for example, ‘We going cinema on Friday’. They contribute appropriately one-to-one and in small group discussions and role play. They use the conjunction and to link ideas or add new information beyond what is asked.

Activities and strategies for English Speaking

English Listening

Pupils listen, attend to and follow stories for short stretches of time. They follow requests and instructions with four key words, signs or symbols, for example, 'Get the big book about dinosaurs from the library'. They attend to, and respond to, questions from adults and their peers about experiences, events and stories, for example, 'Where has the boy gone?'.

Activities and strategies for English Listening

English Reading

Pupils show an interest in the activity of reading. They predict elements of a narrative, for example, when the adult stops reading, pupils fill in the missing word. They distinguish between print or symbols and pictures in texts. They understand the conventions of reading, for example, following text left to right, top to bottom and page following page. They know that their name is made up of letters.

Activities and strategies for English Reading

English Writing

Pupils group letters and leave spaces between them as though they are writing separate words. They are aware of the sequence of letters, symbols and words, for example, selecting and linking symbols together, writing their names and one or two other simple words correctly from memory.

Activities and strategies for English Writing

Maths Using and Applying

Pupils complete a range of classification activities using a given criterion, for example, sorting a pile of coins by size, colour or shape; sorting all the blue Wellington boots; sorting all the size 6 shoes. They identify when an object is different and does not belong to a given familiar category, for example, removing odd items from sets; collecting items into sorting boxes or drawers. They respond appropriately to key vocabulary and questions, for example, ‘How many?’

Activities and strategies for Maths Using and Applying

Maths Number and Algebra

Pupils join in rote counting to 10, for example, saying or signing number names to 10 in counting activities. They can count at least 5 objects reliably, for example, candles on a cake, bricks in a tower. They recognise numerals from 1 to 5 and understand that each represents a constant number or amount, for example, putting correct number of objects (1 to 5) into containers marked with the numeral; collecting the correct number of items up to five. Pupils demonstrate an understanding of ‘less’, for example, indicating which bottle has less water in it. In practical situations they respond to ‘add one’ to a number of objects, for example, responding to requests such as add one pencil to the pencils in the pot, add one sweet to the dish.

Activities and strategies for Maths Number and Algebra

Maths Shape Space and Measures

Pupils respond to ‘forwards’ and ‘backwards’, for example, moving forwards and backwards on request, recognising when a vehicle is moving forwards or backwards, moving a counter forwards or backwards on a board game. They pick out described shapes from a collection, for example, picking out all the round shapes in the classroom, finding shapes with straight edges, fitting shapes into matching holes. They use familiar words in practical situations when they compare sizes and quantities, for example, using the words ‘heavy’ and ‘light’, ’more’ and ‘ less’, ’enough’ or ‘not enough’ to compare objects or quantities.

Activities and strategies for Maths Shape Space and Measures

Science

Pupils understand the scientific use of some simple vocabulary, such as before, after, bumpy, grow, eat, move and can communicate related ideas and observations using simple phrases, for example, which food to give which animal. Pupils can demonstrate simple properties of light, sound and movement, for example, bright, noisy/quiet, fast/slow. They make simple records of their findings, for example, by putting pictures of an activity in sequence. They begin to make suggestions for planning and evaluating their work, for example, responding to the question ‘Was that right or wrong?’ ‘Showing’, ‘demonstrating’ ‘trying out’ ‘responding’ etc may be done by any means appropriate to the pupil’s preferred mode of communication and physical abilities. For some pupils this may mean directing an adult undertaking the task.

Activities and strategies for Science

PSHE and Citizenship

Pupils communicate feelings and ideas in simple phrases. They move, with support, to new activities which are either directed or self-chosen. They make purposeful relationships with others in group activities and attempt to negotiate with them in a variety of situations, for example, if other pupils wish to use the same piece of equipment. They judge right and wrong on the basis of the consequences of their actions. They show some consideration of the needs and feelings of other people and other living things, for example, offering food to a visitor or watering a classroom plant.

Activities and strategies for PSHE and Citizenship

ICT

Pupils gather information from different sources. They use ICT to communicate meaning and express ideas in a variety of contexts, for example, choosing digitised photographs or video clips for their personal profiles. They begin to choose equipment and software for a familiar activity, for example, using a writing-with-symbols programme to send a message home.

Activities and strategies for ICT

Design and Technology

Pupils operate familiar products, with support, and explore how they work. They use basic tools or equipment in simple processes, chosen in negotiation with staff, for example, in cutting or shaping materials. They begin to communicate preferences in their designing and making, for example, adding selected felt shapes to fabric.

Activities and strategies for Design and Technology

P8

Activities and strategies for P8

English Speaking

They link up to four key words, signs or symbols in communicating about their own experiences or in telling familiar stories, both in groups and one-to-one, for example, ‘The hairy giant shouted at Finn’. They use an extensive vocabulary to convey meaning to the listener. They can use possessives, for example, ‘Johnny’s coat’. They take part in role play with confidence. They use conjunctions that suggest cause for example, ‘cos,’ to link ideas.

Activities and strategies for English Speaking

English Listening

Pupils take part in role play with confidence. Pupils listen attentively. They respond appropriately to questions about why or how, for example 'Why does a bird make a nest?', 'How do we copy this picture?'.

Activities and strategies for English Listening

English Reading

Pupils understand that words, symbols and pictures convey meaning. They recognise or read a growing repertoire of familiar words or symbols, including their own names. They recognise at least half the letters of the alphabet by shape, name or sound. They associate sounds with patterns in rhymes, with syllables, and with words or symbols.

Activities and strategies for English Reading

English Writing

Pupils show awareness that writing can have a range of purposes, for example, in relation to letters, lists or stories. They show understanding of how text is arranged on the page, for example, by writing or producing letter sequences going from left to right. They write or use their preferred mode of communication to set down their names with appropriate use of upper- and lower-case letters or appropriate symbols.

Activities and strategies for English Writing

Maths Using and Applying

Pupils talk about, recognise and copy simple repeating patterns and sequences, for example, recognising and describing simple repeating patterns on textiles or necklaces from different cultures; recognising and describing a pattern of socks on a line; joining in a pattern of hand claps; talking about and copying patterns such as beats in familiar music; shapes made by hand and feet in damp sand; sponge prints. Pupils use their developing mathematical understanding of counting up to ten to solve simple problems encountered in play, games or other work, for example, using tokens or marks to tally events or scoring in games; counting in the school environment; using ordinal words to describe positions and turns. Pupils make simple estimates, for example, estimating the number of cubes that will fit into a box or the number of strides across a room.

Activities and strategies for Maths Using and Applying

Maths Number and Algebra

Pupils join in with rote counting to beyond 10, for example, they say or sign number names in counting activities. They continue to rote count onwards from a given small number, for example, continuing the rote count onwards in a game using dice and moving counters up to 10; continuing to say, sign or indicate the count aloud when adult begins counting the first two numbers. Pupils recognise differences in quantity, for example, in comparing given sets of objects and saying which has more or less, which is the bigger group or smaller group. They recognise numerals from one to nine and relate them to sets of objects, for example, labelling sets of objects with correct numerals. In practical situations they respond to ‘add one’ to or ‘take one away’ from a number of objects, for example, adding one more to three objects in a box and say, sign or indicate how many are now in the box; at a cake sale saying, signing or indicating how many cakes are left when one is sold. They use ordinal numbers (first, second, third) when describing the position of objects, people or events, for example, indicating who is first in a queue or line; who is first, second and third in a race or competition. Pupils estimate a small number (up to 10) and check by counting, for example, suggesting numbers that can be checked by counting, guessing then counting the number of: pupils in a group; adults in the room; cups needed at break time.

Activities and strategies for Maths Number and Algebra

Maths Shape Space and Measures

Pupils compare objects directly, focusing on one dimension such as length or height where the difference is marked and can indicate ‘the long one’ or ‘the tall one’, for example, comparing two plants, placed side by side and indicating the tall one or comparing two zips and indicating the long one. They show awareness of time, through some familiarity with names of the days of the week and significant times in their day, such as meal times, bed times, for example, ordering events in their day on a visual daily timetable, understanding and using names of days of the week, ‘no school on Saturday or Sunday, swimming on Wednesday’. They respond to mathematical vocabulary such as ‘straight’, ‘circle’, ‘larger’ to describe the shape and size of solids and flat shapes, for example, when shopping, pupils find boxes with straight edges to pack into the carrier bag; identify the larger circle when stacking two cans. They describe shapes in simple models, pictures and patterns, for example, stamping shapes in sand and describing them, using a set of flat shapes to make pictures or patterns, naming some of the shapes used, identifying specific shapes from pictures, simple models or patterns.

Activities and strategies for Maths Shape Space and Measures

Science

Pupils show they have observed patterns or regular changes in features of objects, living things and events, for example, chrysalis/butterfly day/night. They make some contribution to planning and evaluation and to recording their findings. They identify a range of common materials and know about some of their properties. They sort materials using simple criteria and communicate their observations of materials in terms of these properties. Pupils make their own observations of changes of light, sound or movement that result from actions, for example, using a volume control or a dimmer switch and can describe the changes when questioned directly.

Activities and strategies for Science

PSHE and Citizenship

Pupils join in a range of activities in one-to-one situations and in small or large groups. They choose, initiate and follow through new tasks and self-selected activities. They understand the need for rules in games, and show awareness of how to join in different situations. They understand agreed codes of behaviour which help groups of people work together, and they support each other in behaving appropriately, for example, while queuing in a supermarket. They show a basic understanding of what is right and wrong in familiar situations. They can seek help when needed, for example, assistance in fastening their clothes. They are often sensitive to the needs and feelings of others and show respect for themselves and others. They treat living things and their environment with care and concern.

Activities and strategies for PSHE and Citizenship

ICT

Pupils find similar information in different formats, (photo in paper, in book, on website, from TV programme). Pupils use ICT to communicate and present their ideas, for example, recording sounds on tape and replaying them or taking photographs of their own work. Pupils can load a resource and make a choice from it, for example, a particular game on a CD, a section of a DVD, tracks on a music CD, a game on a PS2. They communicate about their use of ICT.

Activities and strategies for ICT

Design and Technology

Pupils explore familiar products and communicate views about them when prompted. With help, they manipulate a wider range of basic tools in making activities, for example, joining components together to make their intended product. They begin to contribute to decisions about what they will do and how, for example, communicating their approval of certain features of a process.

Activities and strategies for Design and Technology

L1-L5

Activities and strategies for L1-L5

L1

Activities and strategies for L1

English

For example: communicate about matters of interest taking turns in a range of situations and groups.

Activities and strategies for English

English Speaking

Speaking and Listening:

Pupils talk about matters of immediate interest. They listen to others and usually respond appropriately. They convey simple meanings to a range of listeners, speaking audibly, and begin to extend their ideas or accounts by providing some detail.

Activities and strategies for English Speaking

English Listening

Speaking and Listening:

Pupils talk about matters of immediate interest. They listen to others and usually respond appropriately. They convey simple meanings to a range of listeners, speaking audibly, and begin to extend their ideas or accounts by providing some detail.

Activities and strategies for English Listening

English Reading

Pupils recognise familiar words in simple texts. They use their knowledge of letters and sound-symbol relationships in order to read words and to establish meaning when reading aloud. In these activities they sometimes require support. They express their response to poems, stories and nonfiction by identifying aspects they like.

Activities and strategies for English Reading

English Writing

Pupils' writing communicates meaning through simple words and phrases. In their reading or their writing, pupils begin to show awareness of how full stops are used. Letters are usually clearly shaped and correctly orientated.

Activities and strategies for English Writing

Maths

For example: solve addition and subtraction problems with numbers up to 10; describe the basic properties of simple shapes.

Activities and strategies for Maths

Maths Using and Applying

Pupils use mathematics as an integral part of classroom activities. They represent their work with objects or pictures and discuss it. They recognise and use a simple pattern or relationship.

Activities and strategies for Maths Using and Applying

Maths Number and Algebra

Pupils count, order, add and subtract numbers when solving problems involving up to 10 objects. They read and write the numbers involved.

Activities and strategies for Maths Number and Algebra

Maths Shape Space and Measures

When working with 2-D and 3-D shapes, pupils use everyday language to describe properties and positions. They measure and order objects using direct comparison, and order events.

Activities and strategies for Maths Shape Space and Measures

Science

For example: communicate observations of a range of animals and plants in terms of features (e.g. colour of coat, size of leaf).

Activities and strategies for Science

PSHE and Citizenship

Citizenship:

Pupils can talk about citizenship issues that are suggested to them. They think of questions they would like to ask about these issues and identify who could help them answer these questions. They consider what their opinions are and share their ideas with others. They describe some of the groups and communities they belong to and recognise that people in their communities are different. They begin to describe how needs are different from wants. They take part in some of the decisions that affect them and their communities.

Activities and strategies for PSHE and Citizenship

L1c

Activities and strategies for L1c

Science

For example: sort materials into groups describing the basis for these groupings in everyday terms.

Activities and strategies for Science

L1b

Activities and strategies for L1b

L1a

Activities and strategies for L1a

L2

Activities and strategies for L2

English

For example: develop and explain ideas including relevant information the listener needs to know.

Activities and strategies for English

English Speaking

Speaking and Listening:

Pupils begin to show confidence in talking and listening, particularly where the topics interest them. On occasions, they show awareness of the needs of the listener by including relevant detail. In developing and explaining their ideas they speak clearly and use a growing vocabulary. They usually listen carefully and respond with increasing appropriateness to what others say. They are beginning to be aware that in some situations a more formal vocabulary and tone of voice are used.

Activities and strategies for English Speaking

English Listening

Speaking and Listening:

Pupils begin to show confidence in talking and listening, particularly where the topics interest them. On occasions, they show awareness of the needs of the listener by including relevant detail. In developing and explaining their ideas they speak clearly and use a growing vocabulary. They usually listen carefully and respond with increasing appropriateness to what others say. They are beginning to be aware that in some situations a more formal vocabulary and tone of voice are used.

Activities and strategies for English Listening

English Reading

Pupils' reading of simple texts shows understanding and is generally accurate. They express opinions about major events or ideas in stories, poems and nonfiction. They use more than one strategy, such as phonic, graphic, syntactic and contextual, in reading unfamiliar words and establishing meaning.

Activities and strategies for English Reading

English Writing

Pupils' writing communicates meaning in both narrative and non-narrative forms, using appropriate and interesting vocabulary, and showing some awareness of the reader. Ideas are developed in a sequence of sentences, sometimes demarcated by capital letters and full stops. Simple, monosyllabic words are usually spelt correctly, and where there are inaccuracies the alternative is phonetically plausible. In handwriting, letters are accurately formed and consistent in size.

Activities and strategies for English Writing

Maths

For example: present data in simple lists, tables and block graphs; begin to use standard units (e.g. kg, cm, minutes).

Activities and strategies for Maths

Maths Using and Applying

Pupils select the mathematics they use in some classroom activities. They discuss their work using mathematical language and are beginning to represent it using symbols and simple diagrams. They explain why an answer is correct.

Activities and strategies for Maths Using and Applying

Maths Number and Algebra

Pupils count sets of objects reliably, and use mental recall of addition and subtraction facts to 10. They begin to understand the place value of each digit in a number and use this to order numbers up to 100. They choose the appropriate operation when solving addition and subtraction problems. They use the knowledge that subtraction is the inverse of addition. They use mental calculation strategies to solve number problems involving money and measures. They recognise sequences of numbers, including odd and even numbers.

Activities and strategies for Maths Number and Algebra

Maths Shape Space and Measures

Pupils use mathematical names for common 3-D and 2-D shapes and describe their properties, including numbers of sides and corners. They distinguish between straight and turning movements, understand angle as a measurement of turn, and recognise right angles in turns. They begin to use everyday non-standard and standard units to measure length and mass.

Activities and strategies for Maths Shape Space and Measures

PSHE and Citizenship

Citizenship:

Pupils begin to ask questions to find out more about the different groups and communities they belong to, and discuss with others the similarities and differences between them. They give opinions about the communities they belong to and their neighbourhood. They describe how things might be improved through the actions that they or others might take. They begin to recognise that all people have needs and wants and can identify the difference between the two. They begin to explore what is fair and unfair in different situations.

Children can identify and name some feelings (for example through interpreting facial expressions) and express some of their positive qualities. They can demonstrate that they can manage some feelings in a positive and effective way. They begin to share their views and opinions (for example talking about fairness). They can set themselves simple goals (for example sharing toys).

Children can make simple choices about some aspects of their health and wellbeing (for example by choosing between different foods and between physical activities, knowing that they need sun protection) and know what keeps them healthy (for example exercise and rest). They can explain ways of keeping clean (for example by washing their hands and keeping their hair tidy) and they can name the main parts of the body. Children can talk about the harmful aspects of some household products and medicines, and describe ways of keeping safe in familiar situations (for example knowing how and where to cross the road safely). They can explain that people grow from young to old.

Children can recognise that bullying is wrong and can list some ways to get help in dealing with it. They can recognise the effect of their behaviour on other people, and can cooperate with others (for example by playing and working with friends or classmates). They can identify and respect differences and similarities between people, and can explain different ways that family and friends should care for one another (for example telling a friend that they like them, showing concern for a family member who is unwell).

Activities and strategies for PSHE and Citizenship

L2c

Activities and strategies for L2c

L2b

Activities and strategies for L2b

L2a

Activities and strategies for L2a

L3

Activities and strategies for L3

English Speaking

Speaking and Listening:

Pupils talk and listen confidently in different contexts, exploring and communicating ideas. In discussion, they show understanding of the main points. Through relevant comments and questions, they show they have listened carefully. They begin to adapt what they say to the needs of the listener, varying the use of vocabulary and the level of detail. They are beginning to be aware of standard English and when it is used.

Activities and strategies for English Speaking

English Listening

Speaking and Listening:

Pupils talk and listen confidently in different contexts, exploring and communicating ideas. In discussion, they show understanding of the main points. Through relevant comments and questions, they show they have listened carefully. They begin to adapt what they say to the needs of the listener, varying the use of vocabulary and the level of detail. They are beginning to be aware of standard English and when it is used.

Activities and strategies for English Listening

English Reading

Pupils read a range of texts fluently and accurately. They read independently, using strategies appropriately to establish meaning. In responding to fiction and nonfiction they show understanding of the main points and express preferences. They use their knowledge of the alphabet to locate books and find information.

Activities and strategies for English Reading

English Writing

Pupils' writing is often organised, imaginative and clear. The main features of different forms of writing are used appropriately, beginning to be adapted to different readers. Sequences of sentences extend ideas logically and words are chosen for variety and interest. The basic grammatical structure of sentences is usually correct. Spelling is usually accurate, including that of common, polysyllabic words. Punctuation to mark sentences - full stops, capital letters and question marks - is used accurately. Handwriting is joined and legible.

Activities and strategies for English Writing

Maths Using and Applying

Pupils try different approaches and find ways of overcoming difficulties that arise when they are solving problems. They are beginning to organise their work and check results. Pupils discuss their mathematical work and are beginning to explain their thinking. They use and interpret mathematical symbols and diagrams. Pupils show that they understand a general statement by finding particular examples that match it.

Activities and strategies for Maths Using and Applying

Maths Number and Algebra

Pupils show understanding of place value in numbers up to 1000 and use this to make approximations. They begin to use decimal notation and to recognise negative numbers, in contexts such as money and temperature. Pupils use mental recall of addition and subtraction facts to 20 in solving problems involving larger numbers. They add and subtract numbers with two digits mentally and numbers with three digits using written methods. They use mental recall of the 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10 multiplication tables and derive the associated division facts. They solve whole-number problems involving multiplication or division, including those that give rise to remainders. They use simple fractions that are several parts of a whole and recognise when two simple fractions are equivalent.

Activities and strategies for Maths Number and Algebra

Maths Shape Space and Measures

Pupils classify 3-D and 2-D shapes in various ways using mathematical properties such as reflective symmetry for 2-D shapes. They use non-standard units, standard metric units of length, capacity and mass, and standard units of time, in a range of contexts.

Activities and strategies for Maths Shape Space and Measures

PSHE and Citizenship

Citizenship:

Pupils recognise that issues affect people in their neighbourhood and wider communities in different ways. They investigate issues and find answers to questions using different sources of information provided for them. They present their ideas to others and begin to acknowledge different responses to their ideas. They discuss and describe some features of the different groups and communities they belong to. They identify different kinds of rights and understand that rights can conflict. They begin to recognise some features of democracy and know that people have a say in what happens locally and nationally. They identify what could be done to change things in communities and plan some action. They take part in decision-making activities with others on citizenship issues, in contexts that are familiar to them.

Activities and strategies for PSHE and Citizenship

L4

Activities and strategies for L4

English Speaking

Speaking and Listening:

Pupils talk and listen with confidence in an increasing range of contexts. Their talk is adapted to the purpose: developing ideas thoughtfully, describing events and conveying their opinions clearly. In discussion, they listen carefully, making contributions and asking questions that are responsive to others' ideas and views. They use appropriately some of the features of standard English vocabulary and grammar.

Activities and strategies for English Speaking

English Listening

Speaking and Listening:

Pupils talk and listen with confidence in an increasing range of contexts. Their talk is adapted to the purpose: developing ideas thoughtfully, describing events and conveying their opinions clearly. In discussion, they listen carefully, making contributions and asking questions that are responsive to others' ideas and views. They use appropriately some of the features of standard English vocabulary and grammar.

Activities and strategies for English Listening

English Reading

In responding to a range of texts, pupils show understanding of significant ideas, themes, events and characters, beginning to use inference and deduction. They refer to the text when explaining their views. They locate and use ideas and information.

Activities and strategies for English Reading

English Writing

Pupils' writing in a range of forms is lively and thoughtful. Ideas are often sustained and developed in interesting ways and organised appropriately for the purpose of the reader. Vocabulary choices are often adventurous and words are used for effect. Pupils are beginning to use grammatically complex sentences, extending meaning. Spelling, including that of polysyllabic words that conform to regular patterns, is generally accurate. Full stops, capital letters and question marks are used correctly, and pupils are beginning to use punctuation within the sentence. Handwriting style is fluent, joined and legible.

Activities and strategies for English Writing

Maths Using and Applying

Pupils are developing their own strategies for solving problems and are using these strategies both in working within mathematics and in applying mathematics to practical contexts. They present information and results in a clear and organised way. They search for a solution by trying out ideas of their own.

Activities and strategies for Maths Using and Applying

Maths Number and Algebra

Pupils use their understanding of place value to multiply and divide whole numbers by 10 or 100. In solving number problems, pupils use a range of mental methods of computation with the four operations, including mental recall of multiplication facts up to 10 x 10 and quick derivation of corresponding division facts. They use efficient written methods of addition and subtraction and of short multiplication and division. They add and subtract decimals to two places and order decimals to three places. In solving problems with or without a calculator, pupils check the reasonableness of their results by reference to their knowledge of the context or to the size of the numbers. They recognise approximate proportions of a whole and use simple fractions and percentages to describe these. Pupils recognise and describe number patterns, and relationships including multiple, factor and square. They begin to use simple formulae expressed in words. Pupils use and interpret coordinates in the first quadrant.

Activities and strategies for Maths Number and Algebra

Maths Shape Space and Measures

Pupils make 3-D mathematical models by linking given faces or edges, draw common 2-D shapes in different orientations on grids. They reflect simple shapes in a mirror line. They choose and use appropriate units and instruments, interpreting, with appropriate accuracy, numbers on a range of measuring instruments. They find perimeters of simple shapes and find areas by counting squares.

Activities and strategies for Maths Shape Space and Measures

PSHE and Citizenship

Citizenship:

Pupils explore a range of sources of information to engage with topical and controversial issues, including where rights compete and conflict. They identify different and opposing views and can explain their own opinion about what is fair and unfair in different situations. They develop research questions to explore issues and problems and begin to assess the impact of these for individuals and communities. They use what they find out to make informed contributions in debates. They appreciate that there are many diverse groups and communities in the UK and the wider world and use this understanding to explore the communities they belong to. They work together with others to plan and undertake a course of action to address significant citizenship issues. They begin to explain different ways in which people can participate in democracy through individual and collective actions and how they can change things in communities and wider society. They show understanding of democracy by making connections with their knowledge and experience of representation and taking action in the local community.

Children can demonstrate that they recognise their own worth and that of others (for example by making positive comments about themselves and classmates). They can express their views confidently and listen to and show respect for the views of others. They can identify positive ways to face new challenges (for example the transition to secondary school). They can discuss some of the bodily and emotional changes at puberty, and can demonstrate some ways of dealing with these in a positive way. They can talk about a range of jobs, and explain how they will develop skills to work in the future. They can demonstrate how to look after and save money.

Children can make choices about how to develop healthy lifestyles (for example by knowing the importance of a healthy diet and regular exercise). They can identify some factors that affect emotional health and wellbeing (for example exercise or dealing with emotions). They can make judgements and decisions and can list some ways of resisting negative peer pressure around issues affecting their health and wellbeing. They can list the commonly available substances and drugs that are legal and illegal, and can describe some of the effects and risks of these. They can identify and explain how to manage the risks in different familiar situations (for example discussing issues connected to personal safety).

Children can explain how their actions have consequences for themselves and others. They can describe the nature and consequences of bullying, and can express ways of responding to it. They can identify different types of relationship (for example marriage or friendships), and can show ways to maintain good relationships (for example listening, supporting, caring). They can respond to, or challenge, negative behaviours such as stereotyping and aggression. They can describe some of the different beliefs and values in society, and can demonstrate respect and tolerance towards people different from themselves.

Activities and strategies for PSHE and Citizenship

L5

Activities and strategies for L5

English Speaking

Speaking and Listening:

Pupils talk and listen confidently in a wide range of contexts, including some that are of a formal nature. Their talk engages the interest of the listener as they begin to vary their expression and vocabulary. In discussion, they pay close attention to what others say, ask questions to develop ideas and make contributions that take account of others' views. They begin to use standard English in formal situations.

Activities and strategies for English Speaking

English Listening

Speaking and Listening:

Pupils talk and listen confidently in a wide range of contexts, including some that are of a formal nature. Their talk engages the interest of the listener as they begin to vary their expression and vocabulary. In discussion, they pay close attention to what others say, ask questions to develop ideas and make contributions that take account of others' views. They begin to use standard English in formal situations.

Activities and strategies for English Listening

English Reading

Pupils show understanding of a range of texts, selecting essential points and using inference and deduction where appropriate. In their responses, they identify key features, themes and characters and select sentences, phrases and relevant information to support their views. They retrieve and collate information from a range of sources.

Activities and strategies for English Reading

English Writing

Pupils' writing is varied and interesting, conveying meaning clearly in a range of forms for different readers, using a more formal style where appropriate. Vocabulary choices are imaginative and words are used precisely. Simple and complex sentences are organised into paragraphs. Words with complex regular patterns are usually spelt correctly. A range of punctuation, including commas, apostrophes and inverted commas, is usually used accurately. Handwriting is joined, clear and fluent and, where appropriate, is adapted to a range of tasks.

Activities and strategies for English Writing

Maths Using and Applying

In order to carry through tasks and solve mathematical problems, pupils identify and obtain necessary information. They check their results, considering whether these are sensible. Pupils show understanding of situations by describing them mathematically using symbols, words and diagrams. They draw simple conclusions of their own and give an explanation of their reasoning.

Activities and strategies for Maths Using and Applying

Maths Number and Algebra

Pupils use their understanding of place value to multiply and divide whole numbers and decimals by 10, 100 and 1000. They order, add and subtract negative numbers in context. They use all four operations with decimals to two places. They reduce a fraction to its simplest form by cancelling common factors and solve simple problems involving ratio and direct proportion. They calculate fractional or percentage parts of quantities and measurements, using a calculator where appropriate. Pupils understand and use an appropriate non-calculator method for solving problems that involve multiplying and dividing any three-digit number by any two-digit number. They check their solutions by applying inverse operations or estimating using approximations. They construct, express in symbolic form, and use simple formulae involving one or two operations. They use brackets appropriately. Pupils use and interpret coordinates in all four quadrants.

Activities and strategies for Maths Number and Algebra

Maths Shape Space and Measures

When constructing models and when drawing or using shapes, pupils measure and draw angles to the nearest degree, and use language associated with angle. Pupils know the angle sum of a triangle and that of angles at a point. They identify all the symmetries of 2-D shapes. They know the rough metric equivalents of imperial units still in daily use and convert one metric unit to another. They make sensible estimates of a range of measures in relation to everyday situations. Pupils understand and use the formula for the area of a rectangle.

Activities and strategies for Maths Shape Space and Measures

PSHE and Citizenship

Citizenship:

Pupils discuss and debate topical and controversial issues including those where rights are in conflict and need to be balanced. They consider what is fair and unfair to different groups involved and make reference to relevant national, European and international dimensions of the issues. They use different methods of enquiry and sources of information to investigate issues and explore a range of viewpoints, drawing some conclusions. They communicate their arguments clearly, giving reasons for their opinion and recognising the range of ideas involved. They identify the contributions of different cultures and communities to society and describe ways in which the UK is interconnected with the wider world. They work collaboratively with others from the wider community, to negotiate, plan and carry out action aimed at making a difference to the lives of others and explain the impact of actions taken. They show some knowledge of the operation of the political and justice systems in the UK, by describing the key features of democratic processes and the work of government in the UK. They participate effectively in activities involving representation, voting and campaigning on issues they have explored.

Activities and strategies for PSHE and Citizenship

L6 - L8+

Activities and strategies for L6 - L8+

L6

Activities and strategies for L6

English Speaking

Speaking and Listening:

Pupils adapt their talk to the demands of different contexts with increasing confidence. Their talk engages the interest of the listener through the variety of its vocabulary and expression. Pupils take an active part in discussion, showing understanding of ideas and sensitivity to others. They are usually fluent in their use of standard English in formal situations.

Activities and strategies for English Speaking

English Listening

Speaking and Listening:

Pupils adapt their talk to the demands of different contexts with increasing confidence. Their talk engages the interest of the listener through the variety of its vocabulary and expression. Pupils take an active part in discussion, showing understanding of ideas and sensitivity to others. They are usually fluent in their use of standard English in formal situations.

Activities and strategies for English Listening

English Reading

In reading and discussing a range of texts, pupils identify different layers of meaning and comment on their significance and effect. They give personal responses to literary texts, referring to aspects of language, structure and themes in justifying their views. They summarise a range of information from different sources.

Activities and strategies for English Reading

English Writing

Pupils' writing often engages and sustains the reader's interest, showing some adaptation of style and register to different forms, including using an impersonal style where appropriate. Pupils use a range of sentence structures and varied vocabulary to create effects. Spelling is generally accurate, including that of irregular words. Handwriting is neat and legible. A range of punctuation is usually used correctly to clarify meaning, and ideas are organised into paragraphs.

Activities and strategies for English Writing

Maths Using and Applying

Pupils carry through substantial tasks and solve quite complex problems by independently breaking them down into smaller, more manageable tasks. They interpret, discuss and synthesise information presented in a variety of mathematical forms. Pupils' writing explains and informs their use of diagrams. Pupils are beginning to give mathematical justifications.

Activities and strategies for Maths Using and Applying

Maths Number and Algebra

Pupils order and approximate decimals when solving numerical problems and equations [for example, x3 + x = 20], using trial and improvement methods. Pupils are aware of which number to consider as 100 per cent, or a whole, in problems involving comparisons, and use this to evaluate one number as a fraction or percentage of another. They understand and use the equivalences between fractions, decimals and percentages, and calculate using ratios in appropriate situations. They add and subtract fractions by writing them with a common denominator. When exploring number sequences, pupils find and describe in words the rule for the next term or nth term of a sequence where the rule is linear. They formulate and solve linear equations with whole-number coefficients. They represent mappings expressed algebraically, and use Cartesian coordinates for graphical representation interpreting general features.

Activities and strategies for Maths Number and Algebra

Maths Shape Space and Measures

Pupils recognise and use common 2-D representations of 3-D objects. They know and use the properties of quadrilaterals in classifying different types of quadrilateral. They solve problems using angle and symmetry properties of polygons and angle properties of intersecting and parallel lines, and explain these properties. They devise instructions for a computer to generate and transform shapes and paths. They understand and use appropriate formulae for finding circumferences and areas of circles, areas of plane rectilinear figures and volumes of cuboids when solving problems. They enlarge shapes by a positive whole-number scale factor.

Activities and strategies for Maths Shape Space and Measures

PSHE and Citizenship

Citizenship:

Pupils are aware of the diversity of opinions on topical and controversial issues and describe some of the influences that shape those opinions. They decide on appropriate research strategies and develop questions to investigate issues. They explore and interpret different sources of information and begin to assess these for validity and bias. They develop informed arguments, taking account of diverse viewpoints, and challenge assumptions or ideas as they explore them. They use their findings to present a persuasive case for a particular course of action, giving reasons for their view. They negotiate their role, and plan and undertake courses of action with others. They reflect on the extent of their success in achieving an improvement or influence in the community and suggest what they might do next. They show understanding of the complexity of identities and diversity in groups and communities, and explain the impact of some of the changes in UK society and the global community. They consider a range of scenarios (from local to global) where there are inequalities and explain how different kinds of rights need to be protected, supported and balanced. They begin to make comparisons between the UK system of democratic parliamentary government and those systems in different parts of the world. They show understanding of interdependence, describing interconnections between people and their actions in the UK, Europe and the wider world.

Activities and strategies for PSHE and Citizenship

L7

Activities and strategies for L7

English Speaking

Speaking and Listening:

Pupils are confident in matching their talk to the demands of different contexts. They use vocabulary precisely and organise their talk to communicate clearly. In discussion, pupils make significant contributions, evaluating others' ideas and varying how and when they participate. They show confident use of standard English in situations that require it.

Activities and strategies for English Speaking

English Listening

Speaking and Listening:

Pupils are confident in matching their talk to the demands of different contexts. They use vocabulary precisely and organise their talk to communicate clearly. In discussion, pupils make significant contributions, evaluating others' ideas and varying how and when they participate. They show confident use of standard English in situations that require it.

Activities and strategies for English Listening

English Reading

Pupils show understanding of the ways in which meaning and information are conveyed in a range of texts. They articulate personal and critical responses to poems, plays and novels, showing awareness of their thematic, structural and linguistic features. They select and synthesise a range of information from a variety of sources.

Activities and strategies for English Reading

English Writing

Pupils' writing is confident and shows appropriate choices of style in a range of forms. In narrative writing, characters and settings are developed and, in non-fiction, ideas are organised and coherent. Grammatical features and vocabulary are accurately and effectively used. Spelling is correct, including that of complex irregular words. Work is legible and attractively presented. Paragraphing and correct punctuation are used to make the sequence of events or ideas coherent and clear to the reader.

Activities and strategies for English Writing

Maths Using and Applying

Starting from problems or contexts that have been presented to them, pupils progressively refine or extend the mathematics used to generate fuller solutions. They give a reason for their choice of mathematical presentation, explaining features they have selected. Pupils justify their generalisations, arguments or solutions, showing some insight into the mathematical structure of the problem. They appreciate the difference between mathematical explanation and experimental evidence.

Activities and strategies for Maths Using and Applying

Maths Number and Algebra

In making estimates, pupils round to one significant figure and multiply and divide mentally. They understand the effects of multiplying and dividing by numbers between 0 and 1. Pupils solve numerical problems involving multiplication and division with numbers of any size, using a calculator efficiently and appropriately. They understand and use proportional changes, calculating the result of any proportional change using only multiplicative methods. Pupils find and describe in symbols the next term or nth term of a sequence where the rule is quadratic; they multiply two expressions of the form (x + n); they simplify the corresponding quadratic expressions. Pupils use algebraic and graphical methods to solve simultaneous linear equations in two variables. They solve simple inequalities.

Activities and strategies for Maths Number and Algebra

Maths Shape Space and Measures

Pupils understand and apply Pythagoras' theorem when solving problems in two dimensions. They calculate lengths, areas and volumes in plane shapes and right prisms. Pupils enlarge shapes by a fractional scale factor, and appreciate the similarity of the resulting shapes. They determine the locus of an object moving according to a rule. Pupils appreciate the imprecision of measurement and recognise that a measurement given to the nearest whole number may be inaccurate by up to one half in either direction. They understand and use compound measures, such as speed.

Activities and strategies for Maths Shape Space and Measures

PSHE and Citizenship

Citizenship:

Pupils explore the origins of a range of opinions, including their own, on topical and controversial issues. They question assumptions and their own views as a result of informed debate and examination of relevant evidence. They argue persuasively and represent the views of others including those they do not agree with. They weigh up and assess the implications of situations where an individual’s or group’s rights and obligations are contested. They use a range of research strategies and sources of information with confidence. They work with others to initiate, negotiate, plan and carry out appropriate courses of action in the local and wider community to bring about change. They analyse the reasons for diversity in the make-up of UK society and explain how it changes over time. They begin to evaluate the roles citizens can take in shaping decisions and the extent to which they can influence the operation of political and legal systems. They compare the role of citizens in the UK with those in other parts of the world to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of different forms of government.

Activities and strategies for PSHE and Citizenship

L8

Activities and strategies for L8

English Speaking

Speaking and Listening:

Pupils maintain and develop their talk purposefully in a range of contexts. They structure what they say clearly, using apt vocabulary and appropriate intonation and emphasis. They make a range of contributions which show that they have listened perceptively and are sensitive to the development of discussion. They show confident use of standard English in a range of situations, adapting as necessary.

Activities and strategies for English Speaking

English Listening

Speaking and Listening:

Pupils maintain and develop their talk purposefully in a range of contexts. They structure what they say clearly, using apt vocabulary and appropriate intonation and emphasis. They make a range of contributions which show that they have listened perceptively and are sensitive to the development of discussion. They show confident use of standard English in a range of situations, adapting as necessary.

Activities and strategies for English Listening

English Reading

Pupils' response is shown in their appreciation of, and comment on, a range of texts, and they evaluate how authors achieve their effects through the use of linguistic, structural and presentational devices. They select and analyse information and ideas, and comment on how these are conveyed in different texts.

Activities and strategies for English Reading

English Writing

Pupils' writing shows the selection of specific features or expressions to convey particular effects and to interest the reader. Narrative writing shows control of characters, events and settings, and shows variety in structure. Nonfiction writing is coherent and gives clear points of view. The use of vocabulary and grammar enables fine distinctions to be made or emphasis achieved. Writing shows a clear grasp of the use of punctuation and paragraphing.

Activities and strategies for English Writing

Maths Using and Applying

Pupils develop and follow alternative approaches. They reflect on their own lines of enquiry when exploring mathematical tasks; in doing so they introduce and use a range of mathematical techniques. Pupils convey mathematical or statistical meaning through precise and consistent use of symbols that is sustained throughout the work. They examine generalisations or solutions reached in an activity, commenting constructively on the reasoning and logic or the process employed, or the results obtained, and make further progress in the activity as a result.

Activities and strategies for Maths Using and Applying

Maths Number and Algebra

Pupils solve problems involving calculating with powers, roots and numbers expressed in standard form, checking for correct order of magnitude. They choose to use fractions or percentages to solve problems involving repeated proportional changes or the calculation of the original quantity given the result of a proportional change. They evaluate algebraic formulae, substituting fractions, decimals and negative numbers. They calculate one variable, given the others, in formulae such as V = πr2h. Pupils manipulate algebraic formulae, equations and expressions, finding common factors and multiplying two linear expressions. They know that a2 - b2 = (a + b)(a - b). They solve inequalities in two variables. Pupils sketch and interpret graphs of linear, quadratic, cubic and reciprocal functions, and graphs that model real situations.

Activities and strategies for Maths Number and Algebra

Maths Shape Space and Measures

Pupils understand and use congruence and mathematical similarity. They use sine, cosine and tangent in right-angled triangles when solving problems in two dimensions. They distinguish between formulae for perimeter, area and volume, by considering dimensions.

Activities and strategies for Maths Shape Space and Measures

PSHE and Citizenship

Citizenship:

Pupils use and apply their detailed knowledge of citizenship issues, problems and events to analyse how these affect groups and communities in different parts of the world. They make connections between information derived from different sources and their own experience in order to make perceptive observations. They have a detailed understanding of the key citizenship concepts of democracy, justice, rights and responsibilities, identities and diversity, including how these can change over time. They carry out different types of research and hypothesise alternative courses of action, exploring the different implications of each. They put some of these courses of action to the test in their communities and analyse and draw conclusions about the impact and limitations of these. They understand how citizens participate in bringing about change in society through democratic processes and different kinds of action. They ask challenging questions to explore the ways in which justice, laws and governments operate in different places and the roles citizens can take in shaping society.

Activities and strategies for PSHE and Citizenship

L8+

Activities and strategies for L8+

English Speaking

Speaking and Listening ("exceptional performance"):

Pupils select and use structures, styles and registers appropriately in a range of contexts, varying their vocabulary and expression confidently for a range of purposes. They initiate and sustain discussion through the sensitive use of a variety of contributions. They take a leading role in discussion and listen with concentration and understanding to varied and complex speech. They show assured and fluent use of standard English in a range of situations and for a variety of purposes.

Activities and strategies for English Speaking

English Listening

Speaking and Listening ("exceptional performance"):

Pupils select and use structures, styles and registers appropriately in a range of contexts, varying their vocabulary and expression confidently for a range of purposes. They initiate and sustain discussion through the sensitive use of a variety of contributions. They take a leading role in discussion and listen with concentration and understanding to varied and complex speech. They show assured and fluent use of standard English in a range of situations and for a variety of purposes.

Activities and strategies for English Listening

English Reading

"Exceptional performance"

Pupils confidently sustain their responses to a demanding range of texts, developing their ideas and referring in detail to aspects of language, structure and presentation. They make apt and careful comparison between texts, including consideration of audience, purpose and form. They identify and analyse argument, opinion and alternative interpretations, making cross-references where appropriate.

Activities and strategies for English Reading

English Writing

"Exceptional performance"

Pupils' writing has shape and impact and shows control of a range of styles maintaining the interest of the reader throughout. Narratives use structure as well as vocabulary for a range of imaginative effects, and nonfiction is coherent, reasoned and persuasive. A variety of grammatical constructions and punctuation is used accurately and appropriately and with sensitivity. Paragraphs are well constructed and linked in order to clarify the organisation of the writing as a whole.

Activities and strategies for English Writing

Maths Using and Applying

"Exceptional performance"

Pupils give reasons for the choices they make when investigating within mathematics itself or when using mathematics to analyse tasks; these reasons explain why particular lines of enquiry or procedures are followed and others rejected. Pupils apply the mathematics they know in familiar and unfamiliar contexts. Pupils use mathematical language and symbols effectively in presenting a convincing reasoned argument. Their reports include mathematical justifications, explaining their solutions to problems involving a number of features or variables.

Activities and strategies for Maths Using and Applying

Maths Number and Algebra

"Exceptional performance"

Pupils understand and use rational and irrational numbers. They determine the bounds of intervals. Pupils understand and use direct and inverse proportion. In simplifying algebraic expressions, they use rules of indices for negative and fractional values. In finding formulae that approximately connect data, pupils express general laws in symbolic form. They solve simultaneous equations in two variables where one equation is linear and the other is quadratic. They solve problems using intersections and gradients of graphs.

Activities and strategies for Maths Number and Algebra

Maths Shape Space and Measures

"Exceptional performance"

Pupils sketch the graphs of sine, cosine and tangent functions for any angle, and generate and interpret graphs based on these functions. Pupils use sine, cosine and tangent of angles of any size, and Pythagoras' theorem when solving problems in two and three dimensions. They use the conditions for congruent triangles in formal geometric proofs [for example, to prove that the base angles of an isosceles triangle are equal]. They calculate lengths of circular arcs and areas of sectors, and calculate the surface area of cylinders and volumes of cones and spheres. Pupils appreciate the continuous nature of scales that are used to make measurements.

Activities and strategies for Maths Shape Space and Measures

PSHE and Citizenship

Citizenship (exceptional performance):

Pupils use and apply what they have learnt about the origins and substance of different viewpoints to present coherent, perceptive and compelling arguments on a wide range of citizenship issues. They research complex issues, selecting appropriate methodologies and drawing on their own and others’ experience of taking action. They assess and evaluate the validity of a wide range of viewpoints and evidence, synthesising them to draw clear conclusions. They take an overview of the key citizenship concepts of democracy, justice, rights and responsibilities, identities and diversity and make sophisticated observations relating to the connections between them. They take a leading role in defining, negotiating and undertaking courses of action with others to address citizenship issues and problems. They apply this practical understanding to analyse approaches citizens can take to improve society through individual and collective actions and democratic processes. They evaluate the impact and limitations of policies on communities (local to global) now and in the future and suggest alternatives. They debate challenging questions about the relationship between the UK and the wider world and the kind of society they as citizens would like to live in.

Activities and strategies for PSHE and Citizenship

Any

Activities and strategies for Any

Any

Can be used across skill areas and levels.

Activities and strategies for Any

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